Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Snowshoeing

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North American Division
See additionally Snowshoeing – Superior
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Yr of Introduction: 2010

1. Describe the form and dimension of three forms of snowshoes and when/how they is perhaps used (Cardio/working, recreation, mountaineering).[edit]


An cardio/working snowshoe is meant to be used by runners who would in any other case not be capable of practice of their sport when there may be snow on the bottom.

They’re smaller and lighter than different forms of snowshoes and are meant to be used on packed snow. Additional, the bindings are often nearer to the within fringe of the shoe in order that the runner can keep a extra pure stride than with different forms of snowshoes. These snowshoes are additionally more likely to have an uneven form.


Recreation snowshoes are bigger than cardio/working snowshoes, and are meant to be used in gentle-to average walks of 5 to eight km3–5 miles. Most often, recreation snowshoes can be utilized as all-purpose footwear, and can final the consumer for a few years of even tough use. These snowshoes are most frequently symmetric and considerably oval-shaped.


Mountaineering are the most important snowshoes, and are meant for severe hill-climbing, long-distance journeys and off-trail use. Like leisure footwear, mountaineering footwear are most frequently symmetrical and oval formed, although they are going to be extra of an elongated oval than the leisure counterparts.

The scale of the shoe wanted is dictated by two elements: the burden of the individual utilizing them, and the situation of the snow on which they are going to be used. Snowshoes will sink extra deeply into gentle fluffy snow (such because the snow for which Utah is legendary) requiring a bigger shoe. Moist or packed snow could be traversed with smaller footwear.

2.Describe the next snowshoe equipment and their usefulness whereas snowshoeing[edit]

a.Trekking poles[edit]

Trekking poles aid you stability when snowshoeing, can be utilized to help in getting up after a fall, and may unfold the workload out of your legs to your arms providing you with a greater exercise.

b.Mountaineering boots[edit]

Snowshoes don’t include a foot masking. The snowshoer should present that individually. Mountaineering boots are a good selection as a result of they’re heat, comparatively waterproof, and light-weight. Snow boots should not needed as a result of the snowshoe will maintain the boot above the snow (for essentially the most half). The added weight of a snow boot could be exhausting.


Gaiters are clothes worn over the shoe and decrease pant leg, and used primarily as private protecting gear. Gaiters strap over the boot and across the individual’s leg to offer safety from branches and thorns and to stop snow from coming into the highest of the boot.

3. Display correct strategy of the next whereas utilizing snowshoes[edit]


Strolling abilities are simply transferable to simple snowshoe journey, however this isn’t at all times the case with turning round. Whereas a snowshoer with house to take action can, and often does, merely stroll in a small semicircle, on a steep slope or in shut quarters resembling a boreal forest this can be impractical or not possible. It’s thus needed in such circumstances to execute a “kick flip” just like the one employed on skis: lifting one foot excessive sufficient to maintain your entire snowshoe within the air whereas maintaining the opposite planted, placing the foot at a 180 diploma angle and parallel to the opposite (or as shut as doable for the state of affairs and the snowshoer’s bodily consolation), then planting it on the snow and shortly repeating the motion with the opposite foot. That is a lot simpler to perform with poles.


Some trendy snowshoes have bars that may be flipped up for ascending steep slopes. The wearer’s heel can relaxation on the bar.

Whereas the cleating and traction enhancements to trendy snowshoes have vastly enhanced snowshoers’ climbing skills, on very steep slopes it’s nonetheless helpful to make “kick steps,” kicking the toes of the footwear into the snow to create a type of snow stairs for the subsequent traveler to make use of.

Alternatively, snowshoers can use two methods borrowed from skis: the herringbone (strolling uphill with the footwear unfold outward at an angle to extend their assist) and the sidestep.

For these snowshoers who use poles, it may be simpler to depend on the poles to ‘pull’ oneself with common stride, up the slope.


As soon as a path has been damaged up a mountain or hill, snowshoers typically discover a option to velocity up the return journey that manages to even be enjoyable and rests the leg muscle tissue: glissading the path, or sliding down on their buttocks. This doesn’t harm the path, and actually helps pack the snow higher for later customers.

In conditions the place they need to break path downhill and thus can not glissade, snowshoers typically run downhill in exaggerated steps, sliding barely on the snow as they do, an choice typically referred to as “step sliding.” Additionally efficient, are poles positioned in entrance as you descend in an everyday stride. If carrying poles and correctly skilled, they’ll additionally make use of snowboarding methods resembling telemarking.

d.Breaking Path[edit]

On newly fallen snow it’s needed for a snowshoer to “break” a path. That is tiring (it might require as much as 50% extra power than merely following behind) even on degree terrain, and incessantly in teams this work is shared amongst all individuals.

A path breaker can enhance the standard of the following route by utilizing a method, just like the climbing relaxation step, referred to as “stamping”: pausing momentarily after every step earlier than placing full weight on the foot. This helps easy the snow beneath and compacts it even higher for the subsequent consumer.

A well-broken path is often a rut within the snow about 15-20cm6-8 in deep and 60cm2ft huge. Whereas it might seem after heavy use as whether it is doable to “bareboot” or stroll it with out good thing about snowshoes, this apply is frowned upon by severe snowshoers because it results in “postholing,” or roughening of the path from locations the place boots have fallen by way of (preliminary appearances on the contrary, the snow in a damaged path shouldn’t be sufficiently packed to assist the extra concentrated weight of a foot).

In delicate situations, following trails damaged by backcountry skiers could be troublesome on snowshoes. Ski trails are usually a lot narrower than a typical snowshoe path, and fewer effectively packed as a result of skis supply extra flotation than snowshoes. If the snow is deep and delicate, snowshoers might discover themselves postholing proper by way of the ski observe. The beneficial approach is to position the snowshoes one instantly in entrance of the opposite inside the ski observe. This system makes use of essentially the most effectively packed a part of the ski path and minimizes the possibilities of breaking by way of.

4. Clarify the rules of sustaining physique heat and dryness by way of the proper use of correct clothes, below varied winter situations, whereas touring and resting. Know easy methods to efficiently stop and deal with hypothermia in winter situations.[edit]

Sustaining Heat[edit]

The important thing to staying heat within the winter is to remain dry. That is performed by dressing in layers that are simply vented. Whereas snow shoeing, climbing, or cross nation snowboarding, a person generates an unlimited quantity of physique warmth. Until the individual is cautious, the physique will overheat, and the individual will start to perspire. When the individual stops to relaxation, the perspiration will start to relax the physique. It’s due to this fact crucial that the lively individual costume in layers. When the physique begins to warmth up, the outer jacket ought to be vented, which is to say, unzipped. If warmth continues to construct, the outer jacket ought to be eliminated. If this doesn’t cool the physique sufficient to finish perspiration, one other layer ought to be vented, and maybe shed. Finally, the clothes will match the individual’s degree of exercise, the place sufficient physique warmth is generated to maintain the individual heat, however not sweaty. Whether it is snowing, sleeting, or raining, ensure the outermost layer is waterproof.

If an individual finds that he (or she) has not managed his (or her) perspiration sufficiently, it is very important change out of the sweat-soaked clothes as quickly as doable. For as soon as the chills set in, they’re troublesome to beat. Do not put on cotton clothes for winter tenting. Cotton will maintain you heat solely whether it is saved completely dry, and maintaining it completely dry is sort of not possible. Winter campers are fast to admonish that cotton kills. As an alternative put on woolen or artificial clothes.

When the day’s exertion ends, it’s time to begin including layers once more. When it’s lastly time to go to mattress, the winter camper ought to climb right into a heat sleeping bag and zip up. Sleeping luggage are typically given a temperature score. It could be silly to set out on a winter tenting expedition with a $10.00 sleeping bag that’s solely good all the way down to 40°F4.4°C. Be sure that the temperature score matches the anticipated situations, and reserve somewhat margin for dangerous forecasting. Additionally, do not forget that climate forecasts typically don’t cowl greater elevations, so should you’re climbing in mountainous areas, concentrate on the situations on the altitude you are going to be spending your time. Once more, if perspiration begins, the bag ought to be partially unzipped to permit the air to chill the physique earlier than sweat does.


Hypothermia is brought on by continued publicity to low or quickly falling temperatures, chilly moisture, snow, or ice. These uncovered to low temperatures for prolonged durations might endure sick results, even when they’re effectively protected by clothes, as a result of chilly impacts the physique methods slowly, nearly with out discover. Because the physique cools, there are a number of phases of progressive discomfort and incapacity. The primary symptom is shivering, which is an try and generate warmth by repeated contractions of floor muscle tissue. That is adopted by a sense of listlessness, indifference, and drowsiness. Unconsciousness can comply with shortly. Shock turns into evident because the sufferer’s eyes assume a glassy stare, respiration turns into gradual and shallow, and the heartbeat is weak or absent. Because the physique temperature drops even decrease, peripheral circulation decreases and the extremities turn out to be inclined to freezing. Lastly, demise outcomes because the core temperature of the physique approaches 80 °F (27 °C). The steps for remedy of hypothermia are as follows:

  1. Fastidiously observe respiratory effort and coronary heart beat; CPR could also be required whereas the warming course of is underway.
  2. Rewarm the sufferer as quickly as doable. It could be essential to deal with different accidents earlier than the sufferer could be moved to a hotter place. Extreme bleeding should be managed and fractures splinted over clothes earlier than the sufferer is moved.
  3. Exchange moist or frozen clothes and take away something that constricts the sufferer’s arms, legs, or fingers, interfering with circulation.
  4. If the sufferer is inside a heat place and is acutely aware, the simplest methodology of warming is immersion in a bath of heat (100° to 105 °F or 38° to 41 °C) water. The water ought to be heat to the elbow – by no means sizzling. Observe intently for indicators of respiratory failure and cardiac arrest (rewarming shock). Rewarming shock could be minimized by warming the physique trunk earlier than the limbs to stop vasodilation within the extremities with subsequent shock because of blood quantity shifts.
  5. If a bath shouldn’t be out there, apply exterior warmth to each side of the sufferer. Pure physique warmth (pores and skin to pores and skin) from two rescuers is the very best methodology. That is referred to as “buddy warming.” If this isn’t sensible, use sizzling water bottles or an electrical rewarming blanket. Don’t place the blanket or bottles subsequent to reveal pores and skin, nevertheless, and watch out to observe the temperature of the unreal warmth supply, for the reason that sufferer may be very inclined to burn harm. As a result of the sufferer is unable to generate enough physique warmth, placement below a blanket or in a sleeping bag shouldn’t be ample remedy.
  6. If the sufferer is acutely aware, give heat liquids to drink. By no means give alcoholic drinks or enable the sufferer to smoke.
  7. Dry the sufferer totally if water is used for rewarming.
  8. As quickly as doable, switch the sufferer to a definitive care facility. Be alert for the indicators of respiratory and cardiac arrest throughout switch, and maintain the sufferer heat.

5. Clarify the protection worth of the next practices[edit]

a.Taking and understanding easy methods to use a superb map and compass or climbing GPS.[edit]

This apply will aid you with two issues. The primary is that it may stop you from getting misplaced. The second is that should you do get misplaced, it may aid you to search out your means once more. Although GPS receivers are excellent at pinpointing your location and plotting a path to get you to the place you’re going, you shouldn’t rely solely on this know-how. Batteries fail, and gadgets break. Whereas that is true of a compass too, a compass is much easier than a delicate digital system resembling a GPS receiver. In a pinch, a compass could be made with discovered supplies. It’s due to this fact a good suggestion to learn to use a compass and map, and to apply utilizing them in order that you’ll have the required abilities ought to your GPS system fail.

b.Leaving a plan with somebody when you find yourself snowshoeing.[edit]

As with all outside exercise that includes trails or going to a spot that’s sometimes visited by different individuals, it is very important share your plans with somebody who shouldn’t be going with you. That means should you get into bother while you’re away from assist, they’ll know to name for a rescue. Don’t assume you’ll be able to at all times name for rescue by yourself. You (or your telephone) might turn out to be incapacitated, rendering this an impossibility. It is best to due to this fact depart your plan with somebody who is not going to be becoming a member of you in your tour. Particulars ought to embody the place you may be going, who shall be going with you (or will meet you there), and if you plan to return. The individual you inform this data to could possibly be somebody you understand and belief, or it could possibly be a park ranger (many parks require individuals to examine in with them earlier than continuing into the wilderness areas).

The place
If you don’t share your meant route, your exterior contact is not going to know the place to inform the authorities to start looking for it is best to the necessity come up.
If you happen to neglect to point who shall be with you on the journey, a rescue group is not going to know who they’re searching for, or what number of people they need to hope to search out. When canines are utilized in these searches, they’re typically given an merchandise on which the misplaced individual’s scent could also be current.
Let your contact know if you plan to return. If you may be tenting in a single day, and you don’t return on the identical day you set out, there is no such thing as a trigger for alarm. Nevertheless, if you don’t plan to remain in a single day, and don’t return on the identical day, there may be ample trigger for alarm. Some localities will try and recuperate a rescue operation’s value from the people who find themselves rescued (particularly if they’ll present that the rescued individuals have been ill-prepared for the situations they have been more likely to encounter). It’s due to this fact necessary to not name for rescue until it’s warranted.

In case your plans are difficult, or if the individual you might be telling doesn’t have a dependable reminiscence (and there are a lot of individuals who fall into this class), put your plan in writing. A weblog put up, tweet, or Fb standing replace will do effective. When you announce your plan, follow it besides to show again early within the case that the state of affairs adjustments. If you happen to veer off the deliberate path on the spur of the second, it’s precisely as should you by no means shared your plan with an outdoor contact in any respect. If you’ll be able to contact somebody through cellular phone to replace your plan from the sector, then it ought to be protected to proceed (no less than so far as sharing the plan goes – there could also be different risks).

Keep in mind that publicity to the weather is the primary reason for demise when an individual (or social gathering) will get misplaced within the wilderness. When snowshoeing, you’ll be able to nearly be assured that the weather shall be sufficiently excessive as to trigger demise by publicity. You should counter this threat with warning and preparedness.

c. Snowshoeing with a associate[edit]

If you happen to or your associate are injured whereas within the wilderness, it’s higher to go get assist instantly relatively than ready in your exterior contact to note that you haven’t returned. This might trigger an pointless delay and put the injured individual’s life in danger. A associate may additionally be capable of help an injured individual to security if the harm shouldn’t be too grave.

d. Carrying ample water and snacks[edit]

It’s simple to turn out to be dehydrated when exerting oneself. Take loads of water to keep away from this threat. When snowshoeing, it’s a small matter to tow a provide sled, so you’ll be able to load it up with provides. Be warned although, that water can freeze. A Camelbak (or comparable gear) is nice for this as a result of the water is held close to the physique the place it may be warmed by the warmth you give off. If you happen to do run out of water, don’t eat snow or ice – soften it first. Consuming frozen water will decrease your physique temperature and enhance the danger of hypothermia.
One purpose that snowshoeing is such an excellent exercise is as a result of you’ll be able to just about eat continually whereas on the path with out gaining weight. You want power. If you happen to turn out to be incapacitated, having a retailer of power out there will help you heat your self along with your metabolism by shivering. Shivering is the physique’s means of changing meals power to warmth, however that power should come from someplace. If you happen to run out of power to metabolize, however are nonetheless chilly, your physique temperature will drop and you may be vulnerable to hypothermia.

e. Carrying a primary help, survival, and restore kits.[edit]

First Help Package
A minor harm, if left untreated, can turn out to be life threatening within the wilderness. Convey a primary help package to maintain a minor harm minor.
Survival Package
A survival package will comprise objects to stop demise by publicity. It ought to embody dependable fire-starting gear, a whistle, and an emergency blanket or sleeping bag. Spare, dry clothes can also be a good suggestion.
Restore Package
A restore package will aid you to impact a restore to a damaged snowshoe or to a torn merchandise of clothes. Duct tape and cable ties can work miracles. Keep in mind that snowshoes will help you journey farther sooner, so should you get midway by way of your journey and your snowshoes fail, you’ll have to execute the second half with out the advantages a snowshoe gives. This interprets into slower progress, doubtlessly leaving you within the wilderness after darkness falls, and exposing you to extra threat. Compromised outerwear is not going to maintain water away out of your pores and skin, so it too ought to be repaired within the subject if needed.

6. Display easy methods to stand up if you’re carrying a pair of snowshoes after falling within the snow.[edit]

The very first thing to do if you fall is to examine that you’re not injured. Then roll onto your abdomen, increase your self up on all fours, pushing along with your forearm till you’ll be able to shift your weight to your knees. Assume a kneeling place. Then whereas steadying your self with trekking poles (if you’re utilizing them), increase one knee and get the snowshoe beneath your self. Then as you stand on that leg, get the opposite shoe into its correct place.

Upon getting regained your toes, brush as a lot snow off your self as you’ll be able to. In any other case, it would soften in your clothes and you’re going to get soaked. Keep in mind that the key to staying heat is to remain dry.

7. Display the significance of bindings and be capable of accurately fasten your boots within the binding of your snowshoes.[edit]

When conventional wood footwear have been nonetheless widespread, it was frequent to purchase the bindings individually (very like downhill skis), and plenty of wood footwear are nonetheless bought this fashion). They have been generally referred to as “H” bindings, since they consisted of a strap across the heel crossing a strap across the toe and one on the instep, forming a tough model of that letter.

On trendy footwear, there are two types of binding: fixed-rotation (also called “limited-rotation”) bindings, and full-rotation (also called “pivot”) bindings. With both binding system, the heel is left free, and the distinction is in how the ball of the foot is connected to the snowshoe.

In fixed-rotation bindings, the binding is connected to the snowshoe with an elastic strap that brings the tail of the snowshoe up with every step. The snowshoe due to this fact strikes with the foot and the tail doesn’t drag. Fastened-rotation bindings are most well-liked for racing. Full-rotation bindings enable the consumer’s toes to pivot beneath the deck of the snowshoe. They permit the crampon cleats which are below the foot to be kicked right into a slope for grip in climbing, however are comparatively awkward for stepping sideways and backwards because the tail of the snowshoe can drag. Fastened-rotation bindings typically trigger snow to be kicked up the again of the wearer’s legs; this doesn’t are inclined to occur with full-rotation bindings.

A collection of straps, often three, are used to lock the foot to the snowshoe. Some types of binding use a cup for the toe. It will be significant {that a} consumer be capable of manipulate these straps simply, as eradicating or securing the foot typically should be performed open air in chilly climate with naked arms, exposing her or him to the opportunity of frostbite. When placing on snowshoes, left is distinguished from proper by which means the free ends of the binding straps level: at all times outward, to keep away from stepping on them repeatedly.

In 1994, Invoice Torres and a youthful affiliate developed the step-in binding, designed to make it simpler for snowshoers carrying hard-shelled plastic boots (severe mountaineers) to vary from snowshoes to crampons and again once more as wanted.

Snowshoe producers every have their very own designs for bindings, and every design fastens in another way. Due to this, it’s not doable to offer generic directions for fastening them. You’ll have to seek the advice of the directions that include your footwear with the intention to fasten them accurately.

When choosing snowshoes, the bindings are some of the necessary options to think about. They need to be simple to placed on, and simple to get off. If they aren’t, you may be a lot much less doubtless to make use of them. Additionally do not forget that the bindings will doubtless require changes while you’re out on the path. Beneath these situations, the straps are more likely to be stiff with ice, and your fingers are more likely to be chilly.

Some skilled snowshoers [1] advise towards bindings which are primarily based on straps that make two passes by way of a buckle and depend on friction to remain put.

8. Take a collection of three hikes – a brief hike, a one-mile hike, and a two-mile hike. Make an in depth report describing the approximate depth and situation of the snow, crops and animals, and the approximate velocity at which you travelled.[edit]

A wonderful place to start snowshoeing is on a golf course. The course will clearly not be utilized by golfers when it’s coated with snow. Golf programs present open areas and delicate slopes. Different choices are parks, climbing trails, and cross-country snowboarding trails.

You should definitely document your journey as quickly as doable upon your return. It’s simple to overlook particulars. Measure the snow depth with a stick. Is the snow gentle and fluffy, or is it moist and packed?

To maximise your possibilities of seeing wild animals, reduce your noise. Search for animal tracks and hear for birds. Convey a digicam and see should you can seize the great thing about the snow-laden panorama.

9. Clarify the that means of the time period “whiter than snow” discovered is Psalm 51:7. What different pure metaphors may you utilize to reveal the that means of this verse?[edit]

Psalm 51:7 (NIV)
Cleanse me with hyssop, and I shall be clear;

wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

The colour white represents purity. On this verse, the psalmist compares sinlessness with the whiteness of snow. It’s simple to see flecks of filth in snow, and it’s likewise simple to inform that snow is clear and pure. After we are cleansed of sin by Jesus, we’re fully purified.

For different metaphors, strive to consider issues in nature which are pure or white. Listed here are some concepts:

  • Rain water
  • Wool
  • Flour
  • Pure grape juice (wine has leavening in it, and leaven is an emblem of sin).


  1. Snowshoeing, A Trailside Information by Larry Olmsted

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