Biblical Studies/New Testament Commentaries/The Gospel of Matthew/Chapter 10

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Matthew 10[edit]

Matthew 10:1-42 (NIV)

Jesus Sends Out the Twelve

1He known as his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out evil spirits and to heal each illness and illness.

2These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (who is known as Peter) and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John; 3Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; 4Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.

5These twelve Jesus despatched out with the next directions: “Don’t go among the many Gentiles or enter any city of the Samaritans. 6Go relatively to the misplaced sheep of Israel. 7As you go, preach this message: ‘The dominion of heaven is close to.’ 8Heal the sick, increase the useless, cleanse those that have leprosy, drive out demons. Freely you could have acquired, freely give. 9Don’t take alongside any gold or silver or copper in your belts; 10take no bag for the journey, or further tunic, or sandals or a workers; for the employee is value his maintain.

11“No matter city or village you enter, seek for some worthy individual there and keep at his home till you allow. 12As you enter the house, give it your greeting. 13If the house is deserving, let your peace relaxation on it; if it isn’t, let your peace return to you. 14If anybody won’t welcome you or hearken to your phrases, shake the mud off your ft while you go away that residence or city. 15I inform you the reality, will probably be extra bearable for Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that city. 16I’m sending you out like sheep amongst wolves. Subsequently be as shrewd as snakes and as harmless as doves.

17“Be in your guard in opposition to males; they are going to hand you over to the native councils and flog you of their synagogues. 18On my account you may be introduced earlier than governors and kings as witnesses to them and to the Gentiles. 19However once they arrest you, don’t worry about what to say or methods to say it. At the moment you may be given what to say, 20for it won’t be you talking, however the Spirit of your Father talking via you.

21“Brother will betray brother to loss of life, and a father his baby; kids will insurgent in opposition to their mother and father and have them put to loss of life. 22All males will hate you due to me, however he who stands agency to the top might be saved. 23If you find yourself persecuted in a single place, flee to a different. I inform you the reality, you’ll not end going via the cities of Israel earlier than the Son of Man comes.

24“A pupil will not be above his trainer, nor a servant above his grasp. 25It’s sufficient for the scholar to be like his trainer, and the servant like his grasp. If the pinnacle of the home has been known as Beelzebub, how way more the members of his family!

26“So don’t be afraid of them. There’s nothing hid that won’t be disclosed, or hidden that won’t be made identified. 27What I inform you in the dead of night, communicate within the daylight; what’s whispered in your ear, proclaim from the roofs. 28Don’t be afraid of those that kill the physique however can’t kill the soul. Reasonably, be afraid of the One who can destroy each soul and physique in hell. 29Should not two sparrows bought for a penny? But not considered one of them will fall to the bottom aside from the desire of your Father. 30And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31So do not be afraid; you might be value greater than many sparrows.

32“Whoever acknowledges me earlier than males, I can even acknowledge him earlier than my Father in heaven. 33However whoever disowns me earlier than males, I’ll disown him earlier than my Father in heaven.

34“Don’t suppose that I’ve come to convey peace to the earth. I didn’t come to convey peace, however a sword. 35For I’ve come to show

” ‘a person in opposition to his father,
a daughter in opposition to her mom,
a daughter-in-law in opposition to her mother-in-law –
36a person’s enemies would be the members of his personal family.’

37“Anybody who loves his father or mom greater than me will not be worthy of me; anybody who loves his son or daughter greater than me will not be worthy of me; 38and anybody who doesn’t take his cross and comply with me will not be worthy of me. 39Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will discover it.

40“He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one who despatched me. 41Anybody who receives a prophet as a result of he’s a prophet will obtain a prophet’s reward, and anybody who receives a righteous man as a result of he’s a righteous man will obtain a righteous man’s reward. 42And if anybody provides even a cup of chilly water to considered one of these little ones as a result of he’s my disciple, I inform you the reality, he will definitely not lose his reward.”



It’s unlikely that the creator was the apostle Matthew contemplating how a lot of what he consists of comes from Mark, who was not an eyewitness. The view that the creator was a Jewish Christian has been extremely popular prior to now. Nevertheless, there are a selection of points with this way of thought. The primary problem is that the creator makes errors regarding Hebrew scriptures and Jewish events and their beliefs. For instance, the creator mentions Jesus driving into Jerusalem on two animals, which is a citation from Zechariah portraying a very literal success of the synonymous parallelism of the prophecy. There is no such thing as a theological objective for this besides to insist that the prophecy was actually fulfilledt. Thus, extra just lately many students have most popular the chance that the creator was a Gentile.

Time and Place

In keeping with the two-source concept, which has the creator utilizing Mark and an unknown supply named Q, it will seemingly have been written after A.D. 70, someplace round A.D. 80-90. Most locations at the moment don’t cross for seemingly candidates after wanting carefully at them. The almost certainly place of composition at the moment can be Antioch; its mixture of Jewish and Gentile thought would match that of this gospel.

The Church

This was a time of transition for the church because it moved away from its authentic emphasis on Jews. The church in Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70 and at this level most Jews had rejected the Christian gospel whereas the gentiles more and more accepted Christianity. The church was having to work out what its place was with its roots in Judaism and its following being more and more non-Jewish.

Literary Kind

This chapter is totally discourse. It’s centered round directions for the missionary work of the disciples.

Abstract of Matthew 10[edit]

In verse 1 now we have a abstract of the chapter, saying merely that the disciples got authority to carry out miracles as Jesus did. Jesus offers the knowledge of the phrase of god to his disciples in order that they’ll preach confidently and boldly.
Verses 2-Four give us the names of the twelve disciples.

The remainder of the chapter comprises the directions that got to the twelve by Jesus. In verses 5 and 6 Jesus tells his disciples that their ministry might be to the Jews and never the Gentiles or Samaritans. In verse 7 the disciples are informed to evangelise that the dominion of heaven is close to. Verse Eight reiterates what verse 1 says in that Jesus tells the disciples to work miracles. Verses 9 and 10 have Jesus telling the disciples to take no cash or different provides on their journey.

Verse 11-13 have Jesus instructing the disciples to search out houses to remain in on the city they enter and will the house is deserving to let their peace relaxation on it however ought to or not it’s undeserving to let their peace return to them. In verse 14 the disciples are instructed to shake the mud off their ft when leaving a city that doesn’t welcome them and verse 15 tells the reader that these cities that don’t welcome the disciples might be worse off than the condemned cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. In verse 16 the disciples are instructed to watch out and never get caught up within the methods of the world.

Verse 17 tells the disciples to watch out in regards to the folks round them as a result of they are going to hand the disciples over to be punished. Verse 18 goes on to say that the disciples might be witnesses earlier than the leaders of their time and Gentiles. In verses 19 and 20 Jesus tells the disciples to not fear as a result of the Holy Spirit will give them the phrases they might want to say.

Verse 21 says that members of the family will betray one another and verse 22 goes on to say that everybody will hate the disciples however those that are agency of their perception of him might be saved. In verse 23 Jesus tells them to go on to a different place when they’re persecuted and that they won’t undergo all cities earlier than Jesus returns. In verses 24 and 25 Jesus says {that a} pupil will not be above his trainer however it’s sufficient for the scholar to be just like the trainer and Jesus says that if he’s known as Beelzebub then so will the disciples.

Verses 26-28 have Jesus telling the disciples to not be afraid and to proclaim the nice phrase boldly, conserving in thoughts that man can destroy solely the physique and watching out for the one who destroys physique and soul. In verses 29-31 Jesus notes that God cares for every of the sparrows and the disciples are value way more than sparrows so that they don’t have any have to worry.

Verses 32 and 33 say that those that acknowledge their religion boldly might be acknowledged by Jesus however those who deny him might be denied by him.

Verse 34 Jesus says that he “didn’t come to convey peace, however a sword”. Verses 35 and 36 emphasize once more that members of the family might be turned in opposition to one another. Verses 37 and 38 proceed this emphasis, saying that loving a member of the family greater than Jesus makes them unworthy of Jesus and the identical goes for many who don’t take up their cross and comply with Jesus. Verse 39 says that an individual who finds his life will lose it and an individual who loses his life due to Jesus will discover it.

Verse 40 is restating that an individual receiving the disciples is receiving Jesus and, moreover, receiving God. Verse 41 says that an individual who receives a prophet as a result of they’re a prophet receives a prophet’s reward and an individual who receives a righteous man as a result of the person is righteous receives a righteous man’s reward. Verse 42 finishes the chapter saying that if an individual provides one other even one thing so simple as a cup of water as a result of they’re Jesus’ disciple then they won’t lose their reward.

Phrase Research[edit]


Greek Root: ειρήνη

Peace, quietness, relaxation, set at one once more.


Greek Root: λαμβάνω

To simply accept, attain, get hold of, obtain, take.


Greek Root: άξιος

Deserving, comparable, appropriate, due reward, meet.


Introduction: Verses 1-4

This chapter is a response to the previous passage in regards to the want for staff to collect within the harvest (Hagner 264). It begins with the bestowing of authority upon the disciples after which leads into an inventory of precisely who the twelve disciples are (Hagner 264).

Mission Directions: Verses 5-15

This part begins with a top level view of who the disciples have been to focus in on on this mission. “Go relatively to the misplaced sheep of Israel” (NIV). The misplaced sheep of Israel will not be referring to a phase of Jews however to all of Israel (Gaebelein 244, Hagner 270). The prohibition in opposition to going to the Gentiles and Samaritans could very effectively have been to forestall them from making an attempt to repeat Jesus’ success with these peoples in addition to the truth that the disciples could antagonize the Samaritans due to the strain between Jews and Samaritans (Gaebelein 244, Albright 119).[1]

The subsequent instruction is what they’re to do on this mission. Their main goal was to evangelise that the dominion of heaven was close to. They have been additionally to “Heal the sick, increase the useless, cleanse those that have leprosy,” and “drive out demons” however these have been to be secondary to their message (NIV, Hagner 271).

The subsequent part issues their provisions. Within the strategy of their journey they have been to not cost the folks however their fundamental wants have been to be met (Hagner 272). In conserving this in thoughts they have been to not present themselves with the standard issues vacationers concern themselves with however they have been to depend on God’s provision via the hospitality of the folks (Gaebelein 245, Hagner 272).

The ultimate part of instruction issues the disciples’ dealings with those that can be sheltering them. They have been to search out “some worthy individual there and keep at his home” till their departure, which meant they have been to search out an individual who was each prepared and capable of obtain them and their message (Albright 121, Gaebelein 245, Hagner 272). If the house was deserving they have been to let their peace or greeting relaxation on the home and if to not take it again (Gaebelein 246). This greeting had worth in that the disciples had a relationship with Jesus and lack of their presence can be lack of Jesus (Gaebelein 246). The place the disciples weren’t accepted they have been to shake the mud off their ft and go away, one thing Jews practiced when leaving Gentile or unclean territory to dissociate themselves from the judgment awaiting the Gentiles (Gaebelein 246, Hagner 273). On this means the disciples would basically be saying these Jewish cities have been seen as pagan and deserving of judgment, which is emphasised within the reference to Sodom and Gomorrah as they’d change into symbolic of catastrophic judgment (Gaebelein 246, Hagner 273).

Persecution: Verses 16-25

This part is launched by an analogy illustrating the hazard the disciple might be in and what might be required of them because of this. “I’m sending you out like sheep amongst wolves. Subsequently be as shrewd as snakes and as harmless as doves” (NIV). This can imply sustaining a stability of prudence and innocence (Gaebelein 246-247). Verse 17 and 18 describe two completely different time intervals by which the disciples should be on their guard in opposition to those that are in opposition to them. The primary is earlier than the separation of Christianity from Judaism, as the tactic of persecution is said to the Sanhedrin, and the second is after Christianity has change into a faith of its personal. The disciples are then informed that when they’re arrested they don’t seem to be to fret as a result of they are going to be given what to say by the Holy Spirit. The persecution is additional compounded by the truth that the disciples are informed that even their households will betray them. “All males will hate you due to me, however he who stands agency to the top might be saved” (NIV). Standing agency will not be a lot to say resistance however endurance of the persecution (Gaebelein 250). In standing agency they are going to obtain their reward, not essentially that they are going to be saved from their bodily loss of life(Gaebelein 250).

Verse 23 basically tells us that the disciples won’t full this mission to Israel earlier than Jesus is available in judgment upon Israel (Gaebelein 252, Hagner 280).

The final two verses of this part state plainly that if Jesus is being equated with Beelzebub than they need to count on no much less, as their message is his message and equates them with him (Hagner 282).

Concern and Discipleship: Verses 26-39

This part strikes into the topic of worry. The disciples have been anticipated as Jesus’ messengers to not give in to worry and because of this to talk publicly what they’d been informed (ALbright 127). As well as, they need to not worry as a result of man can solely kill the physique and the disciples’ souls can’t be killed by man, whereas God can kill each physique and soul (Gaebelein 254). Lastly, they ought to not worry as a result of God cares for even the smallest sparrow and the very hairs on their head and, thus, way more will he take care of an individual (Gaebelein 255).

This second a part of the part outlines what the disciple must seem like. It emphasizes once more that the disciples are to acknowledge Christ publicly and this isn’t an possibility for Christ will acknowledge solely those that acknowledge him (Gaebelein 256, Hagner 287). Jesus will not be bringing peace to the world, and particularly households, however division (Albright 130, Gaebelin 257, Hagner 292). In consequence, the disciples are anticipated to like God supremely over their household for if they didn’t they’d fall away (Gaebelein 257). This devotion above that to household consists of devotion to the purpose of loss of life. In the event that they comply with this they are going to have life after loss of life and if they don’t they are going to have loss of life awaiting them after this life (Gaebelein 257-258).

Concluding Word: Verses 40-42

This part goes again to the subject of hospitality in verses 5-15. “He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one who despatched me” (NIV). Receiving the message of the disciples would contain receiving their message and thus Jesus’ message. In exhibiting hospitality to a prophet or righteous man, in different phrases a disciple, without having for every other motive than that, the one who acquired them can be rewarded even when that act of hospitality was one thing so small as to present a drink of water (Hagner 296).

In-Depth Have a look at Verses 26-39

Concern and The Value of Discipleship

Verse 26 is a transition from the verses earlier than it into the subject of worry (Gaebelein 254). Verse 26 then appears to maneuver away from the preliminary transition however it’s in reality additional introducing what the disciples must do within the face of worry, that is laid out particularly in verse 27. “What I inform you in the dead of night, communicate within the daylight; what’s whispered in your ear, proclaim from the roofs” (NIV). In time the disciples would communicate publicly the phrases Jesus informed them in personal (Albright 127). They might in essence have a extra public ministry than Jesus (Gaebelein 254). Luke differs noticeably from this in his parallel passage of chapter 12 verse 3 “What you could have stated in the dead of night might be heard within the daylight, and what you could have whispered within the ear within the interior rooms might be proclaimed from the roofs” (NIV). He’s warning the disciples that what they are saying secretly will change into public (Hagner 284).

Verse 28 strikes on to the following motive the disciples shouldn’t worry. Right here the rationale to not worry is plainly that the worst males can do to them doesn’t match the worst God can do (Gaebelein 254). Man can solely kill the physique however God can kill each the physique and soul.

Verses 29-31 cowl the third argument in opposition to worry. They put forth an argument that’s backwards to how we might usually suppose, placing forth God’s care within the smallest of particulars as proof of his capability to care of a lot greater points (Gaebelein 255). It’s fascinating to notice the extremity of this assertion with regard to utilizing sparrows as a measure of God’s take care of the smallest of particulars or creatures as sparrows have been the “least expensive residing issues used for meals” (Hagner 286).

Traits of Discipleship

Verse 32 strikes on to start to additional define what discipleship ought to seem like. Although not essentially within the face of worry, verse 33 continues that theme with the assertion that “whoever disowns me earlier than males, I’ll disown him earlier than my Father in heaven” (NIV). Acknowledging him would contain accepting his message and following him in discipleship whereas the extremity of disown implies apostasy (Hagner 288). There are penalties to giving in to worry and Jesus makes that clear. Publicly acknowledging Christ is important to being a disciple and this can’t be sidestepped (Gaebelein 256, Hagner 287).

Verse 34 is an announcement refuting what the Jews of that day, in addition to what many individuals right now, thought would consequence from the approaching of their Savior. “I didn’t come to convey peace, however a sword” states fairly firmly that Jesus has not come to convey peace and prosperity, a thought that may have been pure to the disciples (NIV, Gaebelein 256, Hagner 291). The truth is, verses 35 and 36 go on to say that households might be divided due to Jesus. Man’s freedom won’t be inhibited and, thus, strife and division will enhance relatively than lower for his disciples (Albright 130, Gaebelin 257).

Verse 37 is a direct results of the division in verses 35 and 36. It’s not saying to not love household however to like God above household (Gaebelein 257). When division happens within the household, you might be to comply with God although your loved ones won’t. Verse 38 additional challenges the disciples with Crucifixion. Not solely does this entail being prepared for loss of life but additionally a willingness to die in probably the most shameful of manners (Albright 132, Gaebelein 257). Verse 39 is basically Jesus telling his disciples the outcomes of the 2 paths open to them. They might acknowledge him, lose their life to their fellow man, and acquire eternity or they might deny him, save their life, and lose their everlasting reward (Gaebelein 257-258).

  1. This rationalization is completely implausible. Attempt another sources for higher concepts.



Blue = All three

Yellow = Matthew and Mark solely

Pink = Matthew and Luke solely

Inexperienced = Mark and Luke solely

Strong = Very same wording

Damaged = Comparable wording



Albright, W. F. “Matthew.” The Anchor Bible. Backyard Metropolis, New York: Doubleday & Firm, Inc, 1971. Print.

Gaebelein, Frank. “Matthew.” The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. vol 8. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing Home, 1992. Print.

Hagner, Donald. “The Second Discourse: The Missionary Discourse.” Matthew 1-13. Dallas, Texas: Phrase Books, 1993. Print.

Meier, John. “Matthew, Gospel of.” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. vol 4. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1992. Print.

Robust, James. The New Robust’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1990. Print.

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