Icelandic/Lesson 1 – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

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Porträt eines Jungen mit Apfel - Ernst Würtenberger.jpg

Kafli 1: Halló!

Lesson 1: Whats up!

On this lesson you’ll study:

  • your first phrases in Icelandic
  • how one can greet somebody
  • a primary introduction to Icelandic nouns
  • concerning the Nominative Case
  • about pronouns (I, you, he, she, it)
  • the verb to be
  • customs in Iceland

Fyrstu orðin (The primary phrases)[edit]

Porträt eines Jungen mit Apfel - Ernst Würtenberger.jpg
strákur
boy

Edouard Manet 043.jpg
stelpa
woman


maður
man

60px
kona
lady

Kveðjur og orðasambönd (Greetings and phrases)[edit]

Icelandic dialogue Lesson 1.png
  • Halló – Whats up    (ha-loh)
  • – Hello    (hai)
  • Blessaður – Whats up (to a male)    (blehs-sah-thur)
  • Blessuð – Whats up (to a feminine)    (blehs-suth)
  • Komdu sæll – Whats up (to a male)    (kohm-du saill)
  • Komdu sæl – Whats up (to a feminine)    (kohm-du sail)
  • Komið þið sæl og blessuð – Whats up (to a gaggle of individuals)    (kohm-ee thee sail oh blehs-suth)
  • Góðan daginn – Good morning/afternoon    (goh-than dai-yin)
  • Gott kvöld – Good night    (goht-kvohld)
  • Góða nótt – Good night time    (goh-tha noht)
  • Bless – Goodbye    (blehss)
  • – Bye    (bai)
  • Sjáumst – So long    (syaumst)
  • Velkomin/n – Welcome (to a male/to a feminine)    (vehl-kohm-in)
  • Takk – Thanks    (tahk)
  • Takk fyrir – Thanks very a lot    (tahk fe-reer)
  • Þakka þér kærlega fyrir – Thanks kindly    (thah-kah thyer kair-lay-ga fe-reer)
  • Það var ekkert – You are welcome    (thah vahr ehk-kert)
  • – Sure    (yau)
  • Nei – No    (nay)
  • Kannski – Perhaps    (kahn-skee)
  • Allt í lagi – Okay    (allt ee lai-yi)
  • Og – And    (oh)
  • Er það? – Actually?    (aer thah)

Athuga

    • When speaking to or about somebody, gender is a vital a part of Icelandic dialog and speech. For instance, when greeting a person, you have to say Komdu sæll, blessaður or sæll. To a girl, you’d say Komdu sæl, blessuð, or sæl
    • If the scenario is casual, you’ll be able to simply say or no matter gender
    • When there’s a group of individuals of blended gender, you might say Komið þið sæl og blessuð
    • Whenever you need to welcome somebody, you additionally should keep in mind the gender of the listener. In case you are welcoming a person, you say Velkominn, if a girl, you say Velkomin. In case you are welcoming a gaggle of individuals, you additionally would say Velkomin
    • Though Allt í lagi means okay (Okay!), you’ll in fact additionally hear ókei, stated the identical because the English okay
    • As you might have observed, Góða daginn (or Góðan dag) means each good morning and good afternoon. Icelanders use this greeting from the early morning hours (after midnight) till barely earlier than meal time. In Iceland, since there’s daylight nearly 24 hours in the summertime months and about Four hours within the winter months, utilizing these greetings primarily based on the way it appears exterior is just not reference
    • Keep in mind that the letter Æ is pronounced just like the English i in mine. Refer again to the Alphabet and Pronunciation web page in case you are scuffling with studying phrases in Icelandic. The phonetic pronunciation will go away after this lesson, since Icelandic phrases are pronounced as they’re learn. Subsequently, it’s important that by the tip of this lesson, you might be comfy with the Icelandic alphabet and the way it’s pronounced

Málfræði (Grammar)[edit]

Nafnorð (Nouns)[edit]

A noun is an individual, place, or factor. It has the identical operate in Icelandic. A noun in an Icelandic sentence, in contrast to one in English, displays its case, gender, and quantity because it’s getting used within the sentence. There are 4 grammatical instances in Icelandic (Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Genitive), which we are going to speak about individually.

Kyn (Gender)[edit]

This might sound odd for an English speaker, a phrase in a language having gender? There are numerous languages that do certainly give their nouns gender. In Icelandic, we’ve got three genders, masculine, female, and impartial nouns. When studying new vocabulary, it can be crucial that you simply set up its gender while you memorise it. It will are available in nice significance when declining the noun (giving it the appropriate endings) and utilizing it. There are some easy guidelines to find out if a noun is masculine, female, or impartial:

The phrase might be masculine if:

  • the phrase ends in ur
  • the phrase ends in i
  • the phrase ends in nn
  • the phrase ends in ll (though generally it is perhaps neuter)
  • the phrase refers to a male individual, in any other case referred to as pure gender

some masculine nouns:
maður (“man”)    stóll (“chair”)    fáni (“flag”)    banki (“financial institution”)    strákur (“boy”)    bíll (“automobile”)

The phrase might be female if:

  • the phrase ends in a
  • the phrase ends in ing
  • the phrase ends in un
  • generally a female phrase won’t even have an ending after its stem
  • the phrase refers to a feminine individual, in any other case referred to as pure gender

some female nouns:
kona (“lady”)    flugvél (“airplane”)    stöð (“station”)    spurning (“query”)    stelpa (“woman”)    verslun (“commerce”)

The phrase might be neuter if:

  • the phrase ends in i or ll (though more often than not phrases ending with i or ll shall be masculine)
  • the final vowel within the phrase has an accent
  • generally a impartial phrase won’t even have an ending after its stem
  • overseas phrases more often than not would turn into neuter when “Icelandicised”

some neuter nouns:
barn (“youngster”)    land (“land”, “nation”)    ball (“dance”)    herbergi (“room”)    tré (“tree”)    bakarí (“bakery”)

Greinir (Articles)[edit]

An article is a phrase that mixes with a noun to point the kind of reference being made by the noun. In English, articles are the, a, and an. In Icelandic, there isn’t any indefinite article, which means there isn’t any method to say a or an in Icelandic. Subsequently, the phrase maður might imply man or a person. You establish the correct translation by the context, which is not as tough because it might sound at first.

There’s nonetheless a particular article (the). In contrast to English although, Icelandic has postfixed particular articles, which means the article attaches itself to the tip of a phrase to make it particular. For instance, in English, you’d say the person, while in Icelandic we are saying manthe. This is perhaps complicated at first, however in time you’re going to get used to this. Let’s have a look how we type the particular article in Icelandic.

  • Karlkyn (Masculine) -inn, -nn
  • Kvenkyn (Female) -in, -n
  • Hvorukyn (Neuter) -ið, -ð

Examples:

Maður → Maðurinn – Man → The person
Kona → Konan – Girl → The girl
Barn → Barnið – Baby → The kid
Barnið er strákur – The kid is a boy

Allt í lagi? Skilurðu? (Do you perceive?). Fairly quickly we will assemble easy sentences.

Nefnifall (Nominative Case)[edit]

The Nominative case, or Nefnifall, is the primary case we are going to speak about. This case additionally exists in English, although we don’t give it some thought once we use it. This case represents a noun that acts because the topic of the sentence—the individual or factor that is doing the verb (reasonably than having the verb executed to it: in The canine bit the child, canine is the topic and child is the object). One other use of the nefnifall is in equal sentences, which equate one noun with one other, equivalent to sentences which use the copula verb to be. (For instance: I’m a person.) In these sentences, each nouns are nominative (at first it could seem to be a person is having “being” executed to him, however Icelandic does not deal with it that means). The nominative type of the noun can also be the dictionary type. The phrases you could have simply learnt on this chapter are all within the nominative (strákur, stelpa, maður, kona). Study this chart and examples beneath:

Nominative case explanation.PNG

Fornöfn (Pronouns)[edit]

Pronouns are nouns which substitute different nouns in a sure phrase or sentence. For instance, in English pronouns are I, you, he, she, it. In Icelandic they’re:

English Icelandic English Icelandic
I Ég We Við
You Þú You (plural) Þið
He Hann They (masculine) Þeir
She Hún They (female) Þær
It Það They (neuter) Þau

  • Word that when you could have a gaggle of males, you employ Þeir and if in case you have a gaggle of females then you definitely would use Þær. If the group is of blended gender, then use Þau.

Tengisögnin “að vera” (The verb “to be”)[edit]

A very powerful verb in any language is the verb “to be”. It is very important know how one can say issues like I’m, you might be, he’s, she is and so forth. The next desk is a verb conjugation. Conjugating verbs is a vital a part of studying a language. We will not simply say I to be, you to be, he to be. We’ve to conjugate a verb so as to discover the suitable type for the adjective. First we are going to present you ways it’s executed in English, than the Icelandic equivelent. Keep in mind your pronouns?

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg TO BE Flag of the United Kingdom.svg

Pronoun Conjugation Pronoun Conjugation
I am We are
You are You are
He, She, It* is They* are

*Word that in English, the plural pronouns “they” and “their” are additionally used for the neuter, the place the gender of the individual or individuals is both unknown or could also be both male or feminine, e.g. “somebody has left their bag right here”, “Somebody phoned you in the present day. I don’t know what they needed”.

Flag of Iceland.svg AÐ VERA Flag of Iceland.svg

Fornafn Sagnbeyging Fornafn Sagnbeyging
Ég er Við erum
Þú ert Þið eruð
Hann, Hún, Það er Þeir, Þær, Þau eru

To make a query, you do the identical as you’d do in English, flip the verb and topic round. (Er ég? = Am I?, Er hann? = Is he?). Additionally, you will generally see Ert þú mixed into Ertu. Do not be postpone by this, ertu merely means are you, though ert þú can also be appropriate and a bit extra formal.

Now that we all know the straightforward construction to assemble an Icelandic sentence, attempt to determine the translations of the next. Spotlight the house subsequent to it to see in case you are appropriate.

  • Ég er strákur [ I am a boy ]
  • Hann er maður [ He is a man ]
  • Er hún konan? [ Is she the woman? ]

Menning (Tradition)[edit]

Siðir (Customs)[edit]

Politeness - Punch cartoon - Project Gutenberg eText 16619.png

In most European languages, there are two types of you, a well mannered type and a well-known type. In Icelandic, þú is used for casual and formal conditions. Formality is kind of just like how English audio system use formality. It tends to be in your voice and the kind of language you employ when addressing somebody in a proper scenario. While English has phrases equivalent to Mr, Mrs, Ms and Miss, Icelandic audio system have a tendency to deal with folks by their first names. The Icelandic equivalents of the English titles simply talked about are Herra, Frú, and Ungfrú, however these are seldom used. Should you ask somebody Hvað heitir þú? (What’s your identify?), they are going to let you know their first identify, first identify and center identify, and even their full identify. It’s completely all proper to name them by their first identify, even when the scenario is formal. Icelandic schoolchildren, consider it or not, would name their academics by their first identify with out together with Herra or Frú.

When assembly somebody for the primary time in Iceland, it’s correct to shake their hand. When two girls meet for the primary time, they may change a kiss on the cheek. When assembly for the primary time, it’s well mannered to make use of the greeting Blessaður or Komdu sæll for a male, and Blessuð or Komdu sæl for a girl. The youthful era would are inclined to ignore formalities upon assembly, and may even say or Halló for an introductory assembly.

Æfingar (Workouts)[edit]

Þýðing (Translation)[edit]

Leiðbeiningar: Translate the next into English.

1. góðan daginn – [ good morning ]

2. velkomin – [ welcome ]

3. já – [ yes ]

4. kannski – [ maybe ]

5. strákur – [ boy ]

6. maðurinn – [ the man ]

7. við – [ we ]

8. hún er – [ she is ]

9. og – [ and ]

10. góða nótt – [ good night ]

Hvaða kyn? (Which gender?)[edit]

Leiðbeiningar: Decide the gender of the next nouns (masculine, female, or neuter). You won’t know the meanings of the phrases but, however see if you happen to can determine it out by the best way the phrase appears.

Dæmi (Instance): staður (place), masculine

1. spurning (query) [ feminine ]

2. bakarí (bakery) [ neutral ]

3. bolti (ball) [ masculine ]

4. tölva (pc) [ feminine ]

5. móðir (mom) [ feminine ]

Ákveðinn grein (Particular article)[edit]

Leiðbeiningar: Make the next phrases particular by including an article.

1. kona
2. strákur
3. barn
4. maður
5. stelpa


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