Louis Vuitton – Wikipedia

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Louis Vuitton - Wikipedia

France-based worldwide style home and luxurious retail firm

Louis Vuitton at Champs-Elysées

Louis Vuitton Malletier, generally often known as Louis Vuitton (French pronunciation: ​[lwi vɥitɔ̃]) or shortened to LV, is a French style home and luxurious items firm based in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.[1] The label’s LV monogram seems on most of its merchandise, starting from luxurious trunks and leather-based items to ready-to-wear, footwear, watches, jewellery, equipment, sun shades and books. Louis Vuitton is without doubt one of the world’s main worldwide style homes; it sells its merchandise by way of standalone boutiques, lease departments in high-end department shops, and thru the e-commerce part of its web site.[6][7]

For six consecutive years (2006–2012), Louis Vuitton was named the world’s Most worthy luxurious model. Its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion.[8] The 2013 valuation of the model was US$28.four billion with income of US$9.four billion.[9] The corporate operates in 50 international locations with greater than 460 shops worldwide.[10]

Louis Vuitton’s “LV” emblem

Historical past[edit]

Founding to World Conflict II[edit]

The Louis Vuitton label was based by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in Paris, France. Louis Vuitton began at $10,567 as a gross sales value.[11] Louis Vuitton had noticed that the HJ Cave Osilite[12] trunk might be simply stacked. In 1858, Vuitton launched his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them light-weight and hermetic.[11] Earlier than the introduction of Vuitton’s trunks, rounded-top trunks had been used, usually to advertise water runoff, and thus couldn’t be stacked. It was Vuitton’s grey Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the power to stack them on high of one other with ease for voyages. Many different baggage makers later imitated Vuitton’s type and design.[7]

The corporate participated within the 1867 Common Exhibition in Paris.[11] In 1871, Ōyama Iwao grew to become the primary recorded Japanese buyer, ordering a set of baggage whereas in Paris as a army observer in the course of the Franco-Prussian Conflict.[13] To guard towards the duplication of his look, Vuitton modified the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876.[7] By 1885, the corporate opened its first retailer in London on Oxford Avenue.[11] Quickly thereafter, as a result of persevering with imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas sample, which bore a emblem that reads “marque L. Vuitton déposée“, which interprets into “L. Vuitton registered trademark”. In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, and the corporate’s administration handed to his son.[7][11]

Advert for Louis Vuitton baggage, 1898

After the dying of his father, Georges Vuitton started a marketing campaign to construct the corporate right into a worldwide company, exhibiting the corporate’s merchandise on the Chicago World’s Truthful in 1893. In 1896, the corporate launched the signature Monogram Canvas and made the worldwide patents on it.[7][11] Its graphic symbols, together with quatrefoils and flowers (in addition to the LV monogram), had been based mostly on the development of utilizing Japanese Mon designs within the late Victorian period.[14] The patents later proved to achieve success in stopping counterfeiting. On this identical yr, Georges travelled to the USA, the place he toured cities corresponding to New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, promoting Vuitton merchandise. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Firm launched the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of baggage designed to be saved inside Vuitton baggage trunks.

By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Constructing opened on the Champs-Elysees. It was the biggest travel-goods retailer on this planet on the time. Shops additionally opened in New York, Bombay, Washington, London, Alexandria, and Buenos Aires as World Conflict I started. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was launched. Throughout 1932, LV launched the Noé bag. This bag was initially made for champagne vintners to move bottles. Quickly thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was launched (each are nonetheless manufactured immediately).[11] In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, and his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed management of the corporate.[11]

Collaboration[edit]

Throughout World Conflict II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis in the course of the German occupation of France. The French e-book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and printed by Paris-based Editions Fayard[15] tells how members of the Vuitton household actively aided the puppet authorities led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and elevated their wealth from their enterprise affairs with the Germans. The household arrange a manufacturing unit devoted to producing artefacts glorifying Pétain, together with greater than 2,500 busts.

Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the writer, Fayard, mentioned: “They haven’t contested something within the e-book, however they’re making an attempt to bury it by pretending it does not exist.”[16] Responding to the e-book’s launch in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH mentioned: “That is historic historical past. The e-book covers a interval when it was family-run and lengthy earlier than it grew to become a part of LVMH. We’re numerous, tolerant and all of the issues a contemporary firm must be.”[16] An LVMH spokesman advised the satirical journal Le Canard Enchaîné: “We do not deny the information, however regrettably the writer has exaggerated the Vichy episode. We’ve not put any stress on anybody. If the journalists wish to censor themselves, then that fits us advantageous.” That publication was the one French periodical to say the e-book, LVMH is the nation’s largest advertiser within the press.[16]

1945 by way of 2000[edit]

Throughout this era, Louis Vuitton started to include leather-based into most of its merchandise, which ranged from small purses and wallets to bigger items of baggage. To be able to broaden its line, the corporate revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959[11] to make it extra supple, permitting it for use for purses, baggage, and wallets. It’s believed that within the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a larger challenge to proceed on into the 21st century.[7] In 1966, the Papillon was launched (a cylindrical bag that’s nonetheless standard immediately). By 1977 with annual income as much as 70 million Francs (US$14.27 million).[17] A yr later, the label opened its first shops in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the corporate joined with America’s Cup to kind the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competitors (often known as an eliminatory regatta) for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton later expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a retailer in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984. Within the following yr, 1985, the Epi leather-based line was launched.[11]

1987 noticed the creation of LVMH.[11]Moët et Chandon and Hennessy, main producers of champagne and cognac, merged respectively with Louis Vuitton to kind the luxurious items conglomerate. Earnings for 1988 had been reported to have been up by 49% greater than in 1987. By 1989, Louis Vuitton got here to function 130 shops worldwide.[11] Coming into the 1990s, Yves Carcelle was named president of LV, and in 1992, his model opened its first Chinese language location on the Palace Lodge in Beijing. Additional merchandise grew to become launched such because the Taiga leather-based line in 1993, and the literature assortment of Voyager Avec… in 1994. In 1996, the celebration of the Centennial of the Monogram Canvas was held in seven cities worldwide.[11]

In 1997, Louis Vuitton made Marc Jacobs its Inventive Director.[18] In March of the next yr, he designed and launched the corporate’s first “prêt-à-porter” line of clothes for women and men. Additionally on this yr merchandise launched included the Monogram Vernis line, the LV scrapbooks, and the Louis Vuitton Metropolis Information.[11]

The final occasions within the 20th century had been the discharge of the mini monogram line in 1999, the opening of the primary retailer in Africa in Marrakech, Morocco, in 2000, and at last, the public sale on the Worldwide Movie Pageant in Venice, Italy, the place the vainness case “amfAR” designed by Sharon Stone was bought, with the proceeds going to the Basis for AIDS Analysis (additionally in 2000).[11]

2001 to 2011[edit]

Louis Vuitton VIP room in Vienna for ordering customized items

By 2001, Stephen Sprouse, in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, designed a limited-edition line of Vuitton baggage[11] that featured graffiti written over the monogram sample. The graffiti learn Louis Vuitton and, on sure baggage, the title of the bag (corresponding to Keepall and Speedy). Sure items, which featured the graffiti with out the Monogram Canvas background, had been solely out there on Louis Vuitton’s V.I.P. buyer checklist. Jacobs additionally created the appeal bracelet, the first-ever piece of jewelry from LV, throughout the identical yr.[11]

In 2002, the Tambour watch assortment was launched.[11] Throughout this yr, the LV constructing in Tokyo’s Ginza district was opened, and the model collaborated with Bob Wilson for its Christmas home windows scenography. In 2003, Takashi Murakami,[11] in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, masterminded the brand new Monogram Multicolore canvas vary of purses and equipment. This vary included the monograms of the usual Monogram Canvas however in 33 completely different colours on both a white or black background. (The traditional canvas options gold monograms on a brown background.) Murakami additionally created the Cherry Blossom sample, wherein smiling cartoon faces in the course of pink and yellow flowers had been sporadically positioned atop the Monogram Canvas. This sample appeared on a restricted variety of items. The manufacturing of this limited-edition run was discontinued in June 2003. Inside 2003, the shops in Moscow, Russia and in New Delhi, India had been opened, the Utah and Suhali leather-based strains had been launched, and the 20th anniversary of the LV Cup was held.[11]

In 2004, Louis Vuitton celebrated its 150th anniversary. The model additionally inaugurated shops in New York Metropolis (on Fifth Avenue), São Paulo, Mexico Metropolis, Cancun and Johannesburg. It additionally opened its first international retailer in Shanghai. By 2005, Louis Vuitton reopened its Champs-Élysées retailer in Paris designed by the American Architect Eric Carlson and launched the Speedy watch assortment. In 2006, LV held the inauguration of the Espace Louis Vuitton on its seventh ground.[11] In 2008, Louis Vuitton launched the Damier Graphite canvas. The canvas options the traditional Damier sample however in black and gray, giving it a masculine look and concrete really feel. Additionally in 2008, Pharrell Williams co-designed a sequence of jewelry (“Blason”) and glasses for Louis Vuitton.[19]

In 2010, Louis Vuitton opened what’s described as their most luxurious retailer in London.[20]

In early 2011, Louis Vuitton employed Kim Jones as its “Males Prepared-to-Put on Studio and Model Director”. He grew to become the lead designer of menswear whereas working underneath the company-wide creative directorship of Marc Jacobs.[21]

On 17 September 2011, the corporate opened its Louis Vuitton Island Maison at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore.[22]

2012 to current[edit]

As of September 2013, the corporate employed Darren Spaziani to steer its accent assortment.[23]

On four November 2013, the corporate confirmed that Nicolas Ghesquière had been employed to exchange Marc Jacobs as creative director of ladies’s collections. Ghesquière’s first line for the corporate was proven in Paris in March 2014.[24]

On 7 April 2014, Edouard Schneider grew to become the pinnacle of press and public relations at Louis Vuitton underneath Frédéric Winckler, who’s Vuitton’s communications and occasions director.[25]

On 26 March 2018, Virgil Abloh was named creative director of males’s put on, changing Kim Jones who had departed for Dior[26]—he’s the label’s first African-American creative director and one in all few black designers of a serious European style home.[27] His debut present was held on the 2018 Paris Males’s Trend Week and staged within the historic Palais-Royal gardens’ courtyard.[28][29]
LV was within the first place within the BrandZ’s high 10 Most worthy luxurious manufacturers in 2019, with a value of $47.2 billion.
On 15 January 2020, the corporate acquired the Sewelô diamond, which is the second-largest tough diamond ever present in historical past, from Lucara Diamond who mined it from their mine in Botswana.[30][31][32]

The Louis Vuitton model and the LV monogram are among the many world’s Most worthy manufacturers.[33] In response to a Millward Brown 2010 research, Louis Vuitton was then the world’s 19th Most worthy model, and was estimated to be value over US$19 billion.[34] For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was quantity one of many 10 strongest manufacturers checklist printed by the Millward Brown Optimor’s 2011 BrandZ research with worth of $24.3 billion. It was greater than double the worth of the second rating model.[35]

A Louis Vuitton “Sarah Pockets”

Louis Vuitton is without doubt one of the most counterfeited manufacturers within the style world resulting from its picture as a standing image.[33] Paradoxically, the signature Monogram Canvas was created to stop counterfeiting.[36] In 2004, Louis Vuitton fakes accounted for 18% of counterfeit equipment seized within the European Union.[37]

The corporate actively seeks to eradicate counterfeiting, and employs a group of legal professionals and particular investigation businesses to pursue offenders by way of the courts worldwide. The corporate allocates roughly half of its communications price range to counteract counterfeiting of its items.[7]LVMH, Vuitton’s dad or mum firm, has described “Some 60 individuals at varied ranges of accountability working full-time on anti-counterfeiting in collaboration with a large community of out of doors investigators and a group of legal professionals.”[38] The corporate carefully controls the distribution of its merchandise.[7] Till the 1980s, Vuitton merchandise had been extensively bought in department shops, corresponding to Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue. Immediately, Vuitton merchandise are primarily out there at company-owned Louis Vuitton boutiques,[7] with a small variety of exceptions famous in upscale procuring districts or inside luxurious department shops. Firm boutiques inside department shops function independently, and are operated by firm managers and staff. LV has an official on-line retailer, by way of its major web site.[39]

In 2006, the corporate filed a lawsuit towards Colorado-based Manifest Data Companies Ltd. (aka Manifest Hostmaster and Manifest.com), by way of WIPO, to be able to compel Manifest switch the area title LV.com to Louis Vuitton; the authorized motion failed and the area was subsequently acquired by Liverpool Victoria (LV=), England’s largest fraternal insurance coverage firm.[40]

A number of high-profile rap music artists have talked about the corporate in music lyrics, most notably: Bohemia, Kanye West, Juicy J, and Wiz Khalifa.[41][42]

Merchandise[edit]

For the reason that 19th century, Louis Vuitton trunks have been made by hand.[7]Up to date Trend provides a preview of the creation of the LV trunks:

The craftsmen line up the leather-based and canvas, tapping within the tiny nails one after the other and securing the five-letter strong pick-proof brass locks with a person handmade key, designed to permit the traveler to have just one key for all of his or her baggage. The picket frames of every trunk are manufactured from 30-year-old poplar that has been allowed to dry for at the least 4 years. Every trunk has a serial quantity and might take as much as 60 hours to make, and a suitcase as many as 15 hours.[7]

Iconic baggage of Louis Vuitton embrace the Speedy bag and Neverfull baggage. Every season Louis Vuitton produces uncommon, restricted version baggage which can be usually solely out there by reservation by way of bigger Louis Vuitton shops.[citation needed]

Most of the firm’s merchandise make the most of the brown Damier and Monogram Canvas supplies, each of which had been first used within the late 19th century. The entire firm’s merchandise exhibit the eponymous LV initials. The corporate markets its product by way of its personal shops situated all through the world, which permits it to regulate product high quality and pricing. It additionally permits LV to stop counterfeit merchandise getting into its distribution channels. As well as, the corporate distributes its merchandise by way of the corporate’s personal web site, LouisVuitton.com.[7]

Promoting campaigns[edit]

The Louis Vuitton firm cultivates a star following and has featured well-known fashions, musicians and actors, corresponding to Jennifer Lopez, Keith Richards, Madonna, Sean Connery, Matthias Schoenaerts, Angelina Jolie, Gisele Bündchen, Mikhail Gorbachev, Oh Sehun, JO1 and David Bowie in its advertising and marketing campaigns.[43]

The corporate generally makes use of print adverts in magazines and billboards in cosmopolitan cities. Louis Vuitton Posters by Razzia had been standard within the 1980s. It beforehand relied on chosen press for its promoting campaigns (steadily involving prestigious stars like Steffi Graf, Andre Agassi and Catherine Deneuve) shot by Annie Leibovitz. Nonetheless, Antoine Arnault, director of the communication division, has just lately determined to enter the world of tv and cinema: The industrial (90 seconds) is exploring the theme “The place will life take you?” and is translated into 13 completely different languages. That is the primary Vuitton industrial advert ever and was directed by famend French advert director Bruno Aveillan.[44]

In 2002, president and CEO of LVMH Watches Daniel Lalonde (later, international CEO for LVMH manufacturers Moët and Dom Pérignon) recruited celebrities, corresponding to Maria Sharapova, Brad Pitt, Tiger Woods, and Uma Thurman, for promoting campaigns photographed by Patrick Demarchelier. Adverts that includes Woods reportedly led to a 30% enhance in gross sales, leading to TAG Heuer being rated because the No. 2 luxurious watch model in America by 2005.[45]

Particular collaborations[edit]

Louis Vuitton has had many collaborations with outstanding artists and designers.

  • Takashi Murakami created particular version collections, such because the Monogramouflage Assortment, which debuted in 2008, and a earlier assortment, launched in 2002, which featured a few of his art work. The creations had been “painted” over the standard monogram canvas, which introduced a radical new twist to the timeless design.
  • Marc Jacobs additionally commemorated a earlier collaboration, designed by Stephen Sprouse. This assortment, initially launched in 2001, featured daring print that seemed like graffiti, over the standard canvas. The recreation of the collab used the identical thought, however gave it a brand new twist utilizing daring colours, like sizzling pink, neon inexperienced, and orange, that additionally glow in the dead of night. This recreated model of the graffiti assortment was lastly launched in 2009 to a lot fanfare.
  • Louis Vuitton additionally collaborated with Kanye West in 2009, designing his personal restricted run of footwear.
  • In July 2012, Jacobs teamed up with Yayoi Kusama to create the “Infinitely Kusama” Assortment, which options daring colours of dots over the vernis leather-based or the monogram canvas. These items are available black with white dots, purple with white dots, and yellow with black dots.
  • Louis Vuitton collaborated of their Spring–Summer season 2016 assortment promoting marketing campaign with the extremely standard Japanese online game franchise Remaining Fantasy and their Video games Most important Heroin referred to as Lighting from Remaining Fantasy 13.
  • In 2017 Louis Vuitton collaborated with American streetwear model Supreme (model), releasing merchandise in varied pop-up shops in main cities around the globe. Gadgets characteristic the Louis Vuitton monogram canvas blended with the Supreme box-logo design.[46]
  • Additionally in 2017, Louis Vuitton collaborated with artist Jeff Koons for 2 collections in an effort to “additional [explore] the intersection of style and artwork.”[47]
  • Nicolas Ghesquiere collaborated with Vogue inventive director Grace Coddington on a cat-themed “Catogram” assortment in 2018.[48]
  • In June 2019, the model collaborated with six up to date artists Sam Falls, Urs Fischer, Nicholas Hlobo, Alex Israel, Tschabalala Self and Jonas Wooden on “Artycapucines.” Every artist designed their model of the Capucine bag which had been bought in numbered, restricted portions.[49]
  • In July 2019, Louis Vuitton opened a brief exhibition titled “Louis Vuitton X” in Los Angeles, showcasing gadgets from its varied collaborations through the years.[50]
  • In October 2019, Louis Vuitton partnered with Riot Video games to create digital belongings for brand new pores and skin line named “True Injury”, the place you’ll be able to clearly see the LV emblem on Qiyana in League of Legends, together with a specialty trophy case for the 2019 League of Legends World Championship.[51]
  • In June 2020, the model collaborated with Japanese designer Nigo[52] x Virgil Abloh capsule assortment.
  • In October 2020, Nicolas Ghesquière reportedly revamped the La Samaritaine division retailer for the Girls’s Spring-Summer season 2021 style present by offering a digital runway with 360-degree views and social-distanced seating for company. [53]

Controversy and disputes[edit]

Britney Spears video[edit]

On 19 November 2007 Louis Vuitton, in additional efforts to stop counterfeiting, efficiently sued Britney Spears for violating anti-counterfeiting legal guidelines. Part of the music video for the music “Do Somethin'” exhibits fingers tapping on the dashboard of a sizzling pink Hummer with what appears like Louis Vuitton’s “Cherry Blossom” design bearing the LV emblem. Britney Spears herself was not discovered liable, however a civil court docket in Paris ordered Sony BMG and MTV On-line to cease displaying the video. They had been additionally fined €80,000 to every group. An nameless spokesperson for LVMH acknowledged that the video constituted an “assault” on Louis Vuitton’s manufacturers and its luxurious picture.[54]

“Easy Residing”[edit]

“Easy Residing” picture (left) and Vuitton’s Audra bag, created by Takashi Murakami (proper)

On 13 February 2007, Louis Vuitton despatched a cease-and-desist order to Danish artwork scholar Nadia Plesner for utilizing a picture of a bag that allegedly infringed Louis Vuitton’s mental property rights. Plesner had created a satirical illustration, “Easy Residing”, depicting a malnourished little one holding a designer canine and a designer bag, and used it on T-shirts and posters to lift funds for the charity “Divest for Darfur”.[55] On 25 March, the court docket dominated in favour of LV that the picture was a transparent infringement of copyright.[56] Regardless of the ruling, Plesner continued to make use of the picture, arguing creative freedom, and posted copies of the cease-and-desist order on her web site. On 15 April 2008, Louis Vuitton notified Plesner of the lawsuit being introduced towards her. Louis Vuitton demanded $7,500 (€5,000) for every day Plesner continues to promote the “Easy Residing” merchandise, $7,500 for every day the unique cease-and-desist letter is printed on her web site and $7,500 a day for utilizing the title “Louis Vuitton” on her web site, plus authorized and enforcement prices.[57]

An LVMH spokeswoman interviewed by New York Journal mentioned that Louis Vuitton had been compelled to take authorized motion when Plesner didn’t reply to their unique request to take away the contested picture, nor to the following cease-and-desist order.[56] In October 2008, Louis Vuitton declared that the corporate had dropped its lawsuit[58] however have since reopened it together with a brand new €205,000 declare resulting from a portray by the identical artist.[59] In Might 2011, the court docket in The Hague present in favour of Plesner’s proper to freedom of expression.[60]

Checker-pattern chair in Hong Kong barber store[edit]

In February 2013, Louis Vuitton issued a criticism towards the proprietor of a barber store in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its mental property rights in relation to a stool utilizing material coating that’s much like the checker sample in Louis Vuitton’s purses. In response to the Hong Kong-based Apple Each day newspaper, the corporate was in search of a compensation of HK$25,000 (round US$3,200) and the publication of an apology within the type of newspaper commercial. The proprietor had sourced fundamental furnishings and gear from the PRC for beginning his store. Dealing with this accusation, the barbershop proprietor mentioned he had no means to deal with Louis Vuitton and will have to shut down his store which has been working for one yr in a distant native district on Hong Kong Island.
The controversy had triggered great concern on Hong Kong information boards and viral protest on Fb pages.[61]

S-Lock copyright in Hong Kong[edit]

In one other authorized warning dated again to September 2012, Louis Vuitton had filed complaints towards two small retail retailers in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its mental property rights in relation to the “S-Lock” design for Louis Vuitton’s purses.
In response to the Hong Kong-based Apple Each day newspaper, the corporate was in search of compensation of HK$40,000 (round $US 5,000) and a public apology within the newspaper. The shopkeeper refused to pay, and Louis Vuitton demanded additional damages as much as HK$150,000 in February 2013. The store claimed to have sourced two such purses from Japan at round HK$120, which it retailed at HK$220.
Within the case of the opposite small store promoting two purses, they argued with Louis Vuitton that the designs had been completely different, and acquired LV’s demand decreased to HK$5,000 (round US$640). The proprietor refused to pay and mentioned they had been able to face LV in court docket.
[62]

Alleged mistreatment of fashions[edit]

In Might 2017, media reported on alleged mistreatment of Louis Vuitton unique mannequin Ulrikke Høyer who was to seem on a Louis Vuitton cruise present in Kyoto. The 20-year-old mannequin, who, on arrival, measured 91.5 cm (36 in) round her hips, was advised she was “too bloated” and “too huge” for her ensemble and instructed to drink solely water for 24 hours. The mannequin alleged that she was solely knowledgeable through her agent in France, who acquired an e-mail together with the textual content “[she] got here yesterday in Tokyo to do her ultimate becoming, and she or he does not match the very same costume anymore. She has a stomach, her face is extra puffy [sic] and the again of her costume is open and you’ll see it’s tight.” Regardless of following the directions, she was ultimately excluded from the present. The mannequin acknowledged that she has “acquired a whole lot of messages from fashions” who’ve skilled related mistreatment from the identical Louis Vuitton casting director. The casting director denied the allegations and defined the directions concerning consumption of water as a misunderstanding, that the mannequin was instructed that her consumption of liquids was to be restricted to water.[63][64]

See additionally[edit]

Historic and present French trunk makers and opponents[edit]

Different present opponents[edit]

References[edit]

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