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Peeragogy in Action

The purpose of the Peeragogy Handbook is to put out efficient peer-learning strategies that you would be able to implement “on the bottom.” We propose that you just look via the Handbook, strive a number of of those options, and see how they be just right for you. Then we invite you to return right here, share your experiences, ask for suggestions, and work with us to enhance the Handbook and the sphere we affectionately name “Peeragogy.”

On this a part of the Peeragogy Handbook, groups of “peeragogues” have distilled their most necessary and relevant analysis and insights from greater than a yr of inquiry and dialogue. Though there’s been no scarcity of experimentation and formal analysis into collaborative, connective, and shared studying programs prior to now, we have detected a brand new rumbling amongst schooling thinkers that when mixed with new platforms and applied sciences, peer-learning methods as described right here may have a huge effect on the way in which academic establishments evolve sooner or later. We have additionally seen for ourselves how peer studying strategies might help anybody who’s turn into an efficient casual educator, whether or not or not that is a part of their job description.

Peeragogy in Action

The interaction of particular person and group[edit]

“Private” helps “peer” – We will consciously domesticate dwelling, rising, responsive webs of data, help, and inspiration that assist us be simpler learners. It is a private studying community. We’ll provide recommendations on the way to construct these networks — and we’ll additionally clarify how robust private studying networks can contribute to and evolve into even stronger peer studying networks.

“Peer” helps “private” – As we work collectively to develop shared plans for our collective efforts in group initiatives, we often can discover locations the place we’ve got one thing to be taught. Moreover, if we’re keen to ask for assist and provide our assist to others, everyone’s studying escalates. Being conscious of efficient interpersonal studying patterns is a crucial a part of constructing an efficient private studying plan.

Within the following sections, you possibly can learn some extra about these methods, or you possibly can skip forward to Half III to begin particular strategies you should use to construct your personal peer studying group.

Peer studying via the ages[edit]

Platon Cave Sanraedam (1604). By Jan Saenredam [Public domain

As you may have guessed, our new term, peeragogy, is a riff on the word pedagogy — the art, science, or profession of teaching. Pedagogy has a somewhat problematic story of origin: it comes from the ancient Greek tradition of having a child (paidos) be supervised (agogos) by a slave. Greek philosophers disagreed with each other as to the best way for individuals to gain knowledge (and even more so, wisdom). Socrates, who insisted that he was not wise, also insisted that his interlocutors join him in investigating truth claims, as peers. The most famous of these interlocutors, Plato, on a more pedagogical bent, spoke of an enlightened few, whose responsibility it was to show others the light of knowledge (illustrated by his famous allegory of “The Cave”).

In more recent centuries, various education theorists and reformers have challenged the effectiveness of what had become the traditional teacher-led model. Most famous of the early education reformers in the United States was John Dewey, who advocated new experiential learning techniques. In his 1916 book, Democracy and Education [1], Dewey wrote, “Schooling just isn’t an affair of ‘telling’ and being advised, however an energetic and constructive course of.” Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who developed the idea of the Zone of Proximal Growth, was one other proponent of “constructivist” studying. His guide, Thought and Language, additionally provides proof to help collaborative, socially significant, problem-solving actions over solo workouts.

Inside the previous few a long time, issues have begun to alter very quickly. In Connectivism: A Studying Idea for the Digital Age, George Siemens argues that know-how has modified the way in which we be taught, explaining the way it tends to complicate or expose the constraints of the training theories of the previous [3]. The essential level of connectivism is that the connections that make it potential for us to be taught sooner or later are extra related than the units of data we all know individually, within the current. Moreover, know-how can to some extent and in sure contexts, substitute know-how with know-where-to-look.

If you would like extra particulars on the historical past, theories, and up to date experiments associated to see studying, we’ve got a extra intensive literature evaluate out there. We’ve additionally tailored it right into a Wikipedia web page, which you’ll be able to edit in addition to learn.

Which is extra enjoyable, skateboarding or chemistry?[edit]

  1. A examine group for a tricky class in natural chemistry convenes at on the library late one evening, resolving to do properly on the following day’s examination. The scholars handle to deflect their objective for some time by gossiping about faculty hook-ups and events, finding out for different lessons, and sharing images. Then, first one member, then one other, takes the initiative and as a bunch, the scholars finally pull their consideration again to the duty at hand. They endure the monotony of finding out for a number of hours, and the following day, they personal the examination.
  2. A younger skateboarder spends hours tweaking the mechanics of the way to make a skateboard float within the air for a cut up second, enduring bodily ache of repeated wipeouts. With repetition and success comes a deep understanding of the physics of the trick. That very same scholar can not string collectively greater than 5 minutes of steady consideration throughout chemistry class and spends even much less time on homework for the category earlier than giving up.

Peer-learning individuals succeed when they’re motivated to be taught. Skateboarding is primarily intrinsically motivated, with some extrinsic motivation coming from the respect that children obtain from friends once they grasp a trick. Normally, the first motivation for studying chemistry is extrinsic, coming from mother and father and society’s expectations that the scholar excel and guarantee his or her future by getting right into a high faculty.

The coed very properly may very well be intrinsically motivated to have a glowing report card, however not for the enjoyment of studying chemistry, however due to the motivation to earn a excessive grade as a part of her total portfolio. Taken a unique means, what’s it about chemistry that’s enjoyable for a scholar who does love the science? Maybe she anticipates the respect, energy and status that comes from saying a brand new breakthrough; or she could really feel her work is necessary for the larger good, or prosperity, of humanity; or she could merely thrill to see atoms bonding to type new compounds.

Studying conditions regularly bore the learner when extrinsic motivation is concerned. Whether or not by mother and father or society, being pressured to do one thing, versus selecting to, finally ends up making the person much less more likely to succeed. In some instances it’s clear, however making an attempt to determine what makes studying enjoyable for a bunch of particular person people will be very tough. Usually there isn’t any clear-cut reply that may be straight utilized within the studying setting. Both means, figuring out the components that may make studying boring or enjoyable is an efficient begin. Maybe studying sure abilities or matters is intrinsically boring, it doesn’t matter what, and we’ve got to simply accept that.

Studying patterns[edit]

A technique to consider enjoyable studying is that it’s enjoyable to be taught – and remember that you just’re studying – new patterns. Jürgen Schmidhuber wrote: “A separate reinforcement learner maximizes anticipated enjoyable by discovering or creating information that’s higher compressible in some but unknown however learnable means, akin to jokes, songs, work, or scientific observations obeying novel, unpublished legal guidelines” [4]. So the skateboarder loved coming throughout new patterns (novel methods) that he was capable of be taught; methods that challenged his present ability stage.

Learner, know thyself: a self-evaluation approach[edit]

The training contributed and bought by every member of the peer studying enterprise relies on a wholesome sense of self-awareness. While you ask your self, “What do I’ve to supply?” and “What do I get out of it?” we predict you’ll give you some thrilling solutions. In peer studying, whether or not or not you are pursuing a sensible goal, you’re in cost, and this sort of studying is often enjoyable. Certainly, as we’ll describe under, there are deep hyperlinks between play and studying. We imagine we are able to enhance the co-learning expertise by adopting a playful mindset. Actually a few of our greatest studying moments within the Peeragogy mission have been peppered with humor and banter. So we discovered {that a} key technique for profitable peer studying is to have interaction in a self-assessment of your motivations and skills. On this train, you have in mind components like the training context, timing and sequence of studying actions, social reinforcements, and visual reward. The peeragogical view is that studying is simplest when it accommodates some type of enjoyment or satisfaction, or when it results in a concrete accomplishment.

When becoming a member of the Peeragogy mission, Charles Jeffrey Danoff did a quick self-evaluation about what makes him activate to studying:

  1. Context. I resist being groomed for some unforeseeable future quite than for a particular objective.
  2. Timing and sequence. I discover studying enjoyable once I’m finding out one thing as a solution to procrastinate on one other urgent task.
  3. Social reinforcement. Getting suggestions from friends on the way to navigate a snowboard round moguls was extra enjoyable for me than my Dad displaying me the correct solution to buff the automotive’s leather-based seats on chore day.
  4. Experiential consciousness. In highschool, it was not enjoyable to sit down and compose a 30-page studying journal for Frankenstein. However owing partly to these sorts of prior experiences, I now discover writing peasurable and it’s enjoyable to learn to write higher.

Two theories of motivation[edit]

One of the crucial outstanding present thinkers of (self-)motivation and regulation is Daniel Pink [5], who proposes a concept of motivation based mostly on autonomy, mastery, and objective, or, extra colorfully:

  1. The urge to direct my life
  2. The will to get higher at one thing that issues
  3. The craving to do one thing that serves a objective greater than simply “myself”

There’s clearly a “studying orientation” behind the second level: the truth is, it’s not only a matter of “enjoyable” — in the end, it’s the sense of accomplishment that issues.

Studying is given an much more central place in a paper by Thomas Malone [6], who was one other thinker who requested “What makes issues enjoyable to be taught?”. His proposed framework for motivating studying actions relies on the three components fantasy, problem, and curiosity — this bears a sure analogy to Pink’s framework.

We will simply see how “participation” pertains to “motivation” within the sense described right here. Once I get helpful info from different folks, I can direct my very own life higher. When I’ve technique of exploring my fantasies and goals by chatting then over and exploring a few of the parts in a secure means, I’m in a a lot better place to make one thing in actuality. A strong repute that comes from having the ability to assist others serves as indicator of non-public progress, and an indication that one is ready to cope with larger challenges. Relationships present probably the most fundamental sense of being a part of one thing greater than simply oneself: et cetera. (Additional ideas on the function of motivation in peer studying seem in our chapter on Motivation.)

Metacognition and mindfulness in peer studying[edit]

Metacognition and mindfulness are phrases for consciousness of how you’re considering, attending, and taking part. It may be notably helpful to consider the roles you tackle within the mission, the sort of contributions you wish to make, and what you hope to get out of the expertise. These are all more likely to change as time goes by.

Potential roles in your peer-learning mission[edit]

  1. Chief, Supervisor, Workforce Member, Employee
  2. Content material Creator, Creator, Content material Processor, Reviewer, Editor
  3. Presentation Creator, Designer, Graphics, Functions
  4. Planner, Undertaking Supervisor, Coordinator, Attendee, Participant
  5. Mediator, Moderator, Facilitator, Proponent, Advocate, Consultant, Contributor

Potential contributions[edit]

  1. Create, Originate, Analysis, Mixture
  2. Develop, Design, Combine, Refine, Convert
  3. Write, Edit, Format

Potential motivations[edit]

  1. Acquisition of coaching or help in a subject or subject;
  2. Constructing relationships with attention-grabbing folks;
  3. Discovering skilled alternatives via different individuals;
  4. Creating or bolstering a private community;
  5. Extra organized and rational considering via dialog and debate;
  6. Suggestions about their very own efficiency and understanding of the subject.

Though this in the beginning self-evaluative examination, we discover it helpful to construct in a quick pause on the graduation of the mission for every peeragogue to self-define and declare what they plan to carry to the desk, what they hope to get out of the expertise, how this builds on and expands data, abilities, capacities, and preferences. This strategy of shared reflection primes the group for cohesion and success.

Private Studying Networks and Peer Studying Networks[edit]

Private Studying Networks are the collections of individuals and knowledge assets (and relationships with them) that folks domesticate with the intention to type their very own public or personal studying networks — dwelling, rising, responsive sources of data, help, and inspiration that help self-learners.

Howard Rheingold: “Once I began utilizing social media within the classroom, I seemed for and started to be taught from extra skilled educators. First, I learn after which tried to remark usefully on their weblog posts and tweets. Once I started to grasp who knew what on the earth of social media in schooling, I narrowed my focus to probably the most educated and adventurous amongst them. I paid consideration to the folks the savviest social media educators paid consideration to. I added and subtracted voices from my consideration community, listened and adopted, then commented and opened conversations. When I discovered one thing I believed would curiosity the chums and strangers I used to be studying from, I handed alongside my very own studying via my blogs and Twitter stream. I requested questions, requested for assist, and finally began offering solutions and help to those that appeared to know lower than I. The lecturers I had been studying from had a reputation for what I used to be doing — “rising a private studying community.” So I began searching for and studying from individuals who talked about HOW to develop a “PLN” because the fanatics known as them.”

Robust and weak ties[edit]

Your PLN may have folks and websites that you just verify on typically – your most important sources of data and studying – your ‘robust ties’. Your ‘weak ties’ are these folks and websites that you just don’t enable lots of bandwidth or time. However they could turn into robust later, as your community grows or your pursuits broaden. It is a two-way road – it is extremely necessary that you’re sharing what you be taught and uncover with these in your community and never simply taking, if you wish to see your community broaden.

Peer studying networks[edit]

Later within the Handbook, we’ll speak extra about the way to develop and share “peeragogical profiles” — in different phrases the way to promote what you wish to be taught, and what you’d be eager about serving to train others. A community of people that share their profiles and experiences, and collaboratively work, be taught, train, and talk is a peer studying community. You’ll additionally discover extra details about constructing this kind of a community in our article on Peeragogy for Okay-12 Educators (the article is helpful even when you’re not formally employed as a instructor).

From syllabus and curriculum to private and peer studying plans[edit]

A part of the effectiveness of peeragogy is that the “syllabus” or “curriculum” — extra usually, the training plan — is developed by the folks doing the training. You don’t faint with shock whenever you see the studying checklist when you helped write it.

In peer studying, having a private studying plan on the outset helps every participant establish his or her distinctive studying and educating proclivities and capabilities, and successfully apply them within the peer setting. In growing your private plan, you possibly can ask your self the next questions:

  1. What do I most have to find out about within the time forward?
  2. What are the perfect methods I be taught, what studying actions will meet my studying wants, what assistance will I want and the way lengthy will it take?
  3. What’s going to I put into my private portfolio to show my studying progress and achievements?

Early within the course of, the peer-learning group must also convene to develop a peer studying plan. Within the Peeragogy mission, we used reside conferences and forum-style platforms to debate the group-level variations of the questions listed above. Private studying wants and abilities had been additionally aired by way of these platforms, however the important thing shared consequence was an preliminary mission plan. Initially this took the type of an overview of handbook chapters to jot down, in addition to a division of labor into totally different roles.

Nothing was set in stone, and each the peer group and particular person individuals have continued to develop, implement, evaluate, and modify their objectives because the mission develops. We’ve stayed sufficiently related to the unique aim of manufacturing a handbook about peer studying that you just now have one in your fingers (or in your display screen). We’ve additionally added some new objectives for the mission as time has passed by.

Having a malleable framework permits peer learners to:

  1. Establish applicable instructions and objectives for future studying;
  2. Evaluate their strengths and areas for improvement;
  3. Establish objectives and plans for enchancment;
  4. Monitor their actions and evaluate and modify plans as wanted to attain their objectives;
  5. Replace the objectives to correspond to progress.

This doesn’t imply you must let chaos rule, however typically within the swirl of concepts and contributions, new directIons took form and new concepts took maintain. We broaden on the notion of change within the dialogue of roles and motivations.

Self-generating templates[edit]

Documentation like thoughts maps, outlines, blogs or journals, and discussion board posts for a peer studying mission can create an “audit path,” or historical past, of the method. This report not solely serves as a information for brand spanking new individuals, but in addition features as a beneficial evaluate software for all, and a ready-made template for future peer-learning initiatives. As you mine the documentation of a previous peer-learning mission or a accomplished part of an ongoing mission for efficient studying patterns, take the time to validate and evaluate what you’ve achieved in opposition to the aim or mission on the outset. Use the report to mirror and consider key parts of the method for you as a facilitator and as a member of the peer studying group. Replace your plans accordingly.

From company coaching to studying on the job[edit]

Right now’s data employees usually have immediate, ubiquitous entry to the web. The measure of their skill is an open-book examination. “What have you learnt?” is changed with “What are you able to do?” And in the event that they get bored, they’ll comparatively simply be mentally elsewhere.

This has ramifications for the way in which managers handle in addition to the way in which lecturers train. To extract optimum efficiency from employees, managers should encourage them quite than command them. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry put it properly: “If you wish to construct a ship, don’t instruct the boys to noticed wooden, sew the sails, put together the instruments and set up the work, however make them lengthy for setting sail and journey to distant lands.”

Jay Cross: “If I had been an educational designer in a moribund coaching division, I’d polish up my resume and head over to advertising and marketing. Co-learning can differentiate companies, enhance product utilization, strengthen buyer relationships, and cut back the price of hand-holding. It’s cheaper and extra helpful than promoting. However as an alternative of simply making a duplicate of at present’s boring academic practices, construct one thing based mostly on interplay and camaraderie, maybe with some wholesome competitors thrown in. Once more, the emphasis ought to at all times be on studying with the intention to do one thing!”

From peer studying to peeragogy[edit]

The concept that we wanted a brand new concept (which we gave the identify paragogy [7]) arose out of the challenges we confronted doing peer studying. Our purpose was to grasp how teams and organizations can get higher at serving individuals’ pursuits, whereas individuals additionally be taught and turning into higher contributors.

Paragogy began out as a set of proposed ideas that describe peer produced peer studying — we’ll say precisely what these ideas are a bit additional under. We designed them to distinction with a set tips for grownup educators superior by Malcolm Knowles [10]. The paragogy ideas centered on the way in which during which co-learners form their studying context collectively. Peer produced peer studying is one thing for “progressive educators” in all places, working in any respect scales. You don’t have to have the phrase instructor, coach, or educator in your job title. It’s sufficient to ask somebody out to lunch and ask questions, arrange a studying group with your mates, and even to deal with a brand new DIY mission following suggestions from the ironmongery shop clerk or directions you downloaded from the web.

Our secret for profitable peer studying is definitely hidden in plain view: the phrase “paragogy” means “manufacturing” in Greek. We’re notably eager about how the highly effective mix of peer studying and collaborative work drives open supply software program improvement, and helps construct assets like Wikipedia. However the truth is it really works equally properly in offline settings, from official hacker/maker areas to garages and treehouses. Tasks like StoryCorps present how modern media can add a robust new layer to historical methods for educating, studying, and sharing.

The phrase “peeragogy” makes an attempt to make these concepts instantly comprehensible to everybody, together with non-geeks. Peeragogy is about friends studying collectively, and educating one another. In the long run, the 2 phrases are literally synonyms. If you wish to go into theory-building mode, you possibly can spell it “paragogy”. If you wish to be a bit extra right down to earth, stick to “peeragogy.”

Other ways to investigate the training course of[edit]

Challenge vs. skill, showing

After doing a little private reflection on the roles you wish to tackle and the contributions you wish to make (as we mentioned above), you may additionally wish to work collectively together with your studying group to investigate the training course of in additional element. There are a lot of totally different phases, phases, and dimensions that you should use to assist construction and perceive the training expertise: we checklist a few of these under.

  1. I, We, Its, It (from Ken Wilber — for an software in modeling academic programs, see [11])
  2. Steering & Assist, Communication & Collaboration, Reflection & Demonstration, Content material & Actions (from Gráinne Conole)
  3. Forming, Norming, Storming, Acting from Bruce Tuckman.
  4. The “five-stage e-moderating mannequin” from GIlly Salmon
  5. Assimilative, Info Processing, Communicative, Productive, Experiential, Adaptive (from Oliver and Conole)
  6. A number of intelligences (after Howard Gardner).
  7. The related “psychological state” (after Csíkszentmihályi; see image)
  8. Thought-about when it comes to “Studying Energy” (Deakin-Crick, Broadfoot, and Claxton).

Peer studying for one[edit]

How are you going to apply the concepts of peer studying by yourself? In a sure sense, it’s not possible, however by some means that by no means stops folks from making an attempt. We discover a hanging parallel between the paragogy ideas and the 5 Components of Efficient Pondering proposed by Edward Burger and Michael Starbird in a latest guide [12]. It’s a pleasant quick guide and value a learn: right here, we are going to simply quote the titles of the primary chapters for instance one potential parallel:

  1. Altering context as a decentered heart ~ Quintessence, Partaking Change: Rework Your self
  2. Meta-learning as a font of data ~ Air, Creating Questions out of Skinny Air: Be your personal Socrates
  3. Friends present suggestions that wouldn’t be there in any other case ~ Water, Seeing the Movement of Concepts: Look Again, Look Ahead
  4. Studying is distributed and nonlinear ~ Earth, Grounding Your Pondering: Understanding Deeply
  5. Understand the dream when you can, then get up! ~ Hearth, Igniting Insights via Errors: Fail to Succeed

We predict that “considering” is commonly simplest when it’s executed with others, and that is one thing that Burger and Starbird don’t give a lot consideration. Nonetheless, even when you end up by yourself within the midst of that difficult DIY mission, you should use the strategies of peer studying to grasp your self as a rising, altering a part of a shared context in movement. This will contribute to an efficient and adaptive outlook on life.

We invite you to method this guide as a “peer learner” — and we hope the strategies we’ve launched right here will serve you properly on the earth at massive.

Additional studying[edit]

A thesaurus to your interior edu-geek[edit]

  1. Constructivism
  2. Social constructivism
  3. Radical constructivism
  4. Enactivism
  5. Constructionism
  6. Connectivism

On enjoyable and tedium[edit]

  1. The Contribution of Judo to Schooling by Kano Jigoro
  2. Pale King, unfinished novel by David Foster Wallace

On Paragogy[edit]

  1. Joe Corneli’s “Implementing Paragogy” lesson plan, on Wikiversity
  2. Joe Corneli and Charlie Danoff’s “Paragogy Papers”, on paragogy.web

On Studying vs Coaching[edit]

  1. Hart, Jane. Is it time for a BYOL (Carry Your Personal Studying) technique to your group?

On PLNs[edit]

  1. Shelly Terrell: World Netweaver, Curator, PLN Builder, weblog submit, with video
  2. Will Richardson and Rob Mancabelli, Private Studying Networks: Utilizing the Energy of Connection to Rework Schooling
  3. Howard Rheingold’s PLN hyperlinks on Scrumptious

Suggestions from an open supply perspective[edit]

Care of Consumer:Neophyte on the Instructing Open Supply wiki.

  1. The Artwork of Group
  2. Open Recommendation
  3. The Open Supply Approach


  1. Dewey, J. (2004). Democracy and schooling. Dover Publications.
  2. Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. MIT press.
  3. Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A studying concept for the digital age. Worldwide Journal of Tutorial Know-how and Distance Studying, 2(1), 3-10.
  4. Schmidhuber, J. (2010). Formal concept of creativity, enjoyable, and intrinsic motivation. Autonomous Psychological Growth (IEEE), 2(3), 230-247.
  5. Pink, D. (2011), Drive: The Stunning Fact About What Motivates Us, Canongate Books Ltd
  6. Malone, T.W. (1981), Towards a Idea of Intrinsically Motivating Instruction, Cognitive Science, 4, pp. 333-369
  7. Corneli, J. and Danoff, C.J. (2011), Paragogy: Synergizing particular person and organizational studying. (Revealed on Wikiversity.)
  8. Knowles, M. S. (1980). The fashionable apply of grownup schooling: From pedagogy to andragogy. Chicago: Follett.
  9. Corneli, J., and Mikroyannidis, A. (2012). Crowdsourcing schooling on the Net: a role-based evaluation of on-line studying communities, in Alexandra Okada, Teresa Conolly, and Peter Scott (eds.), Collaborative Studying 2.0: Open Instructional Sources, IGI World.
  10. Burger, E. and Starbird, M. (2013). The 5 Components of Efficient Pondering, Princeton College Press.

Authors: Gigi Johnson and Joe Corneli

So that you wish to strive peer studying? Perhaps you’ve got already discovered a number of individuals who will help you on this effort. Congratulations! It is time now to focus your considering. How will you convene others to type an acceptable group? How will you design a learner expertise which can make your mission thrive? On this chapter, we recommend a wide range of questions that may aid you to make your mission extra concrete for potential new members. There are not any good or unhealthy solutions – it relies on the character of your mission and the context. Making an attempt to reply the questions just isn’t one thing you do exactly as soon as. At numerous phases of the mission, even after it is over, some or all of these questions will aquire new meanings – and doubtless new solutions.

Fabrizio Terzi: “There’s a power of attraction that permits aggregation into teams based mostly on the diploma of non-public curiosity; the flexibility to reinforce and enhance the share of every participant; the expectation of success and potential profit.”

Group identification[edit]

Be aware that there are various teams that will not must be “convened”, since they exist already. There’s a good story from A. T. Ariyaratne in his collected works during which he does “convene” a pure group (specifically, a village) – however in any case, bear in mind on the outset that the diploma of group-consciousness that’s crucial for peer studying to happen just isn’t fastened. On this part, we suppose you’re simply on the level of kicking off a mission. What steps must you take? We propose you’re taking a second to ponder the next questions first – and revisit them afterward, as a solution to establish finest practices for the following effort.

There might be a quiz[edit]

Engraving of Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936). “I maintain six sincere serving-men (ey taught me all I knew)”

These taking the initiative ought to ask themselves the normal Who, What, The place, When, Why, and How. (Simon Sinek suggests to start with Why, and we touched on Who, above!). In doing so, preliminary assumptions for design and construction are established. Nonetheless, in peer studying it’s notably necessary to take care of a wholesome diploma of openness, in order that future group members also can type their solutions on these questions. Specifically, this implies that the design and construction of the mission (and the group) could change over time. Right here, we riff on the normal 5W’s+H with six clusters of questions that will help you focus your fascinated about the mission and amplify its optimistic outcomes.

Expectations for individuals[edit]

1. Roles and flux

  • What are a few of the roles that persons are more likely to fall into (e.g. Newcomer, Wrapper, Lurker, Aggregator, and so on.)?
  • How probably is it that individuals will stick to the mission? In case you anticipate many individuals to depart, how will this impact the group and the end result?
  • Do you envision new folks becoming a member of the group as time goes by? In that case, what options are you designing that may help their integration into an current circulate?
  • Will the mission work if folks dip out and in? In that case, what options help that? If not, how will folks keep centered?

2. Nature of the mission

  • What abilities are required? What abilities are you making an attempt to construct?
  • What sorts of change will individuals endure? Will they be heading into new floor? Altering their minds about one thing? Studying about studying?
  • What social goal, or “product” if any, is the mission aiming to attain?
  • What is the ‘hook?’ Except you’re working with an current group, or re-using an current modality, constant participation will not be a given.

3. Time administration

  • What do you anticipate the group to do, from the second it convenes, to the top of its life-span, to create the precise consequence that may exist on the conclusion of its final assembly? (C. Gersick.) Be aware that what folks ACTUALLY do could also be totally different from what you envision on the outset, so you could wish to revisit this query (and your reply) once more because the mission progresses.
  • Holding in thoughts that a minimum of one interval of is inertia may be very probably (C. Gersick), what occasion(s) do you anticipate occurring within the group that may carry issues again collectively, set a brand new course, or usually get issues on observe? Extra usually, what sorts of contingencies does your group face? How does it interface to the “outdoors world”?
  • What pre-existing narratives or workflows may you copy in your group?
  • How a lot of a time dedication do you anticipate from individuals? Is this sort of dedication practical for members of your group?
  • What, if something, are you able to do to make participation “straightforward” within the sense that it occurs within the pure circulate of life for group members?
  • Does everybody have to take part equally? How would possibly non-equal participation play out for individuals down the road?

4. Again to the long run

  • What constructions will help individuals of their journey to the top end result(s) you (or they) have envisioned? What content material can you employ to flesh out this construction?
  • The place can the construction “flex” to accommodate unknown developments or wants as individuals be taught, uncover, and progress?

5. Instrument/platform selection

  • What instruments are notably suited to this group? Think about such options as studying kinds and experiences, geographical variety, the necessity for centralization (or de-centralization), cultural expectations associated to group work, sharing, and rising management.
  • Is there an inherent draw to this mission for a given inhabitants, or are you as facilitator going to must work at preserving folks concerned? How would possibly your reply affect your selection of instruments? Is the reward for completion the training itself, or one thing extra tangible?
  • In selecting instruments, how do you prioritize such values and targets as straightforward entry, numerous makes use of, and excessive ceilings for stylish growth?

6. Linearity vs Messiness

  • How will your group handle suggestions in a constructive means?
  • Why would possibly individuals really feel motivated to present suggestions?
  • How agency and intensive are the social contracts for this group? Do they apply to everybody equally, or do they range with participation stage?
  • What do folks have to know at the beginning? What can you’re employed out as you go alongside? Who decides?
  • How welcome are “meta-discussions”? What sorts of discussions will not be more likely to be welcome? Do you may have amenities in place for “breakout teams” or different peer-to-peer interactions? (Alternatively, if the mission is usually distributed, do you may have any amenities in place for coming collectively as a bunch?)

Cycles of group improvement[edit]

The above questions stay necessary thoughout the lifetime of the mission. Individuals could come and go, individuals could suggest essentially new approaches, folks could evolve from lurkers to main content material creators or vice-versa. The questions we recommend will be simplest in case your group discusses them over time, as a part of its workflow, utilizing synchronous on-line conferences (e.g., Huge Blue Button, [Connect], Blackboard Collaborate), boards, Google docs, wikis, and/or electronic mail lists. Common conferences are one solution to set up a “heartbeat” for the group.

In fascinated about different methods of structuring issues, word that the “physique” of the Peeragogy Handbook follows a Tuckman-like define (Convening a Group is our “forming”, Organizing a Studying Context is our “storming and norming”, Co-working/Facilitation is our “performing”, and Evaluation is our “adjourning”). However we agree with Gersick (and Engeström) that teams don’t at all times observe a linear or cyclical sample with their actions!

Nonetheless, there could also be some particular phases or phases that you really want your group to undergo. Do you want some “milestones,” for instance? How will whenever you’ve achieved “success?”

Coping with chaos or battle[edit]

In closing, it’s price reminding you that it’s pure for teams to expertise battle, particularly as they develop or cross different threshold factors or milestones – or maybe extra probably, once they do not cross necessary milestones in a well timed vogue (ah, so that you bear in mind these milestones from the earlier part!). Nonetheless, there are some methods can be utilized to make this battle productive, quite than merely damaging (see Ozturk and Simsek).

Really useful Studying[edit]

  1. Engeström, Y. (1999). Modern studying in work groups: Analyzing cycles of data creation in apply. In Y. Engeström, R. Miettinen & R.-L-. Punamäki (Eds.), Views on exercise concept, (pp. 377-404). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge College Press
  2. Gersick, C. (1988). Time and transition in work groups: Towards a brand new mannequin of group improvement. Academy of Administration Journal 31 (Oct.): 9-41.
  3. Mimi Ito’s observations about manga fan teams co-learning Japanese
  4. Rheingold U, MindAmp teams
  5. Shneiderman, B. (2007). Creativity help instruments: accelerating discovery and innovation. Commun. ACM 50, 12 (December 2007), 20-32. doi:10.1145/1323688.1323689,
  6. Tomlinson, B., Ross, J., André, P., Baumer, E.P.S., Patterson, D.J., Corneli, J., Mahaux, M., Nobarany, S., Lazzari, M., Penzenstadler, B., Torrance, A.W., Callele, D.J., Olson, G.M., Silberman, M.S., Ständer, M., Palamedi, F.R., Salah, A., Morrill, E., Franch, X., Mueller, F., Kaye, J., Black, R.W., Cohn, M.L., Shih, P.C., Brewer, J., Goyal, N., Näkki, P., Huang, J., Baghaei, N., and Saper, C., Massively Distributed Authorship of Educational Papers, Proceedings of Alt.Chi, Austin Texas, Might 5–10 2012 (10 web page prolonged summary), ACM, 2012,
  7. David de Ugarte, Phyles. (Abstract) (E-book)
  8. Scheidel, T. M., & Crowell, L. (1964). Thought improvement in small dialogue teams. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 50, 140-145.
  9. Scheidel, T. M., & Crowell, L. (1979), Discussing and Deciding – A Desk E-book for Group Leaders and Members, Macmillan Publishing
  10. Ozturk and Simsek, “Of Battle in Digital Studying Communiities within the Context of a Democratic Pedagogy: A paradox or sophism?,” in Proceedings of the Networked Studying Convention, 2012, Maastricht. Video ortextual content.
  11. Paragogy Handbook, Easy methods to Arrange a MOOC.

Creator: Verena Roberts @verenanz Editor: Alison Seaman @alisonseaman


Academics have a repute of working in isolation, of preserving their studying to themselves and on their very own islands. They’re additionally recognized for generously sharing assets with each other. It’s this latter trait that’s turning into more and more necessary because the function of the educator continues to broaden. As academic know-how analysis specialist Stephen Downes observes, the expectations on lecturers have grown from “being knowledgeable within the self-discipline of educating and pedagogy…[to needing to have] up-to-date and related data and expertise in it. Even a instructor of fundamental disciplines akin to science, historical past or arithmetic should stay grounded, as no self-discipline has remained secure for very lengthy, and all disciplines require a deeper perception with the intention to be taught successfully.” It’s not potential for an educator to work alone to fulfil every of those roles: the answer is to work and be taught in collaboration with others.
That is the place peer-based sharing and studying on-line, related/networked studying, or peeragogy, can play an necessary function in serving to educators.

Turning into a related/networked learner[edit]

The next steps are set out in ‘phases’ with the intention to recommend potential experiences one could encounter when turning into related. It’s acknowledged that each learner is totally different and these ‘phases’ solely function a information.

Section 1: Taking the plunge[edit]

To assist educators start to attach, the Related Educator Starter Package[1]
was created throughout Related Educator’s Month in August 2012.
Within the package, educators will be taught the excellence between related ‘educator’ and connecter ‘learner.’ The package additionally outlines big selection of Net 2.Zero instruments like, Twitter, Fb, wikis, blogs and social networking to assist help the educator-learner via the phases of related studying.

The important thing to turning into a profitable ‘related educator-learner’ entails spending the time wanted to learn to be taught and share in an open, related setting. Every stage, software and neighborhood has a studying curve and nuances of its personal. With the intention to efficiently full every part, related educator-learners might want to attain out and ask for help from different learners they encounter. In flip, these new related educator-learners might want to reciprocate by sharing studying overtly. Not solely will it help others’ studying nevertheless it helps to foster the situations crucial for a wholesome on-line studying neighborhood.

Section 2: Lurking[edit]

All of us start as lurkers. A learner will be thought of a real ‘lurker’ after reviewing the starter package, establishing a digital presence (via a weblog or a wiki) or signing up for Twitter and making a fundamental profile containing a photograph. On this part, lurkers will start to
[ ‘follow’ other users on Twitter]
and observe [ educational Twitter ‘chats’].
Lurkers can even start to hunt out different assets via blogs, [ Facebook], Edmodo and LinkedIn teams.

Section 3: Getting into the fray[edit]

The lurker begins to develop right into a related educator-learner as soon as she or he makes the choice to enter right into a dialogue with one other consumer. This might take the type of a private weblog submit, participation on an education-related weblog or wiki[2]
or a an trade with one other Twitter consumer. As soon as this trade takes place, relationships could start to type and the work in the direction of constructing a Private Studying Community (PLN) begins.

One such website the place such relationships will be constructed is Classroom 2.0, which was based by Steve Hargadon. By way of Classroom 2.0, Steve facilitates a lot of free on-line studying alternatives together with weekly
[ Blackboard Collaborate] classes, conferences, guide initiatives and grassroots cross-country educational-transformation excursions.
Classroom 2.Zero additionally gives a supportive Social Ning—a free, social studying area that gives on-line conferences and synchronous and recorded interviews with inspirational educators—for related educator-learners around the globe.

Section 4: Constructing and shaping your PLN[edit]

Simply as not each particular person one meets turns into a buddy, you will need to keep in mind that not each trade will result in a co-learning peeragogy association. It might be enough to observe one other who offers helpful content material with out anticipating any reciprocation. It’s depending on every educator-learner to find out who to concentrate to and what studying objective that particular person or group will serve. Additionally it is as much as the learner-educator to show to others that she or he will actively take part.

There are a variety of methods one can use when shaping the PLN to be taught.
Nonetheless, the most effective methods educators can entice a core of peeragogues is by sharing actively and demonstrating energetic and open studying for others.

There are a variety of websites the place a brand new educator-learner can actively and overtly be taught. Along with private running a blog and wikis, different skilled improvement alternatives embrace open, on-line programs and weekly synchronous on-line conferences via video, podcasts or different types of media. Examples of those alternatives are: Related Studying TV, TechTalkTuesdays, VolunteersNeeded, SimpleK12, Okay12 On-line, CEET, and EdTechTalk. Alternatively, programs are supplied with P2PU’s College of Schooling or all kinds of different alternatives collected by TeachThought and Educator’s CPD on-line.
Peggy George, the co-facilitator of the weekly Classroom 2.Zero LIVE Classes, created a livebinder bundle of free ‘[ PD On Demand]’ related skilled improvement on-line choices for peeragogy fanatics.

Stage 5: Extending the digital PLN and connecting face-to-face[edit]

Over time, as soon as the related educator-learner has established a refined PLN, these peeragogues could select to shift their studying into bodily studying areas. Some choices out there for these educator-learners would come with the brand new ‘grassRoots unconferences’, which embrace examples akin to: EduCon, EdCamps, THATcamp and ConnectedCA. These conferences are free or extraordinarily low-cost and give attention to studying from and with others. These ‘unconferences’ are usually publicized via Twitter, Google Apps, and Fb. Connecting face-to-face with different peeragogues can strengthen bonds to studying networks and assist to advertise their sustainability.

Constructing private capability for Schooling 2.0[edit]

Given the big variety of roles now anticipated of related educators, via peeragogy, Okay–12 educators can now every distribute the load of the training amongst networks. Though studying to attach takes time and apply, a help community is a pure accompaniment of relationship-building and open studying. Quite a few on-line websites and social platforms exist for Okay–12 educators to attach and be taught collectively as peeragogues; although the methods during which connections develop are distinctive. It’s as much as every educator to find a ardour and share it with others!


Sylvia Tolisano, Rodd Lucier and Zoe Branigan-Pipen co-created the infographic under, which explores experiences people could encounter within the journey to turn into related learners. It isn’t solely a useful entry level for brand spanking new learner-educators looking for to turn into peeragogues, nevertheless it additionally serves as an exquisite instance of peeragogy at work.

Extra assets[edit]

wonderful know-how instruments to your classroom:[edit]

Easy methods to develop your PLN:[edit]

  • [[%20|Degrees of Connected Teaching]] by Rodd Lucier
  • [[%20|TeachThought]]

Idea & philosophy of related studying for classroom transformation:[edit]

This part addresses analysis practitioners. At a excessive stage, the questions are:

  • How can we perceive peer studying higher?
  • How can we do analysis “the peeragogical means”?
  • How will we carry analysis into our peer studying actions?

We’ll define three totally different traces of detailed questioning that broaden on these factors. These may very well be studied in many alternative methods.

Query A. Which actions have the most important payoff for learners, when it comes to our studying mannequin?[edit]

The preliminary query is, what’s the studying mannequin? For instance, our idea map offers one mannequin of “peeragogy” as a topic, however to make this right into a “studying mannequin”, we must do some additional work. What’s going to we settle for as proof of studying or progress?

That is to do with whether or not we consider studying as one thing that may occur conceptually, or solely “in apply”. Within the peeragogy mission, we observe the latter view, which is consistent with what Peter Sloterdijk says about studying via direct participation:

The implications of Foucault’s options will solely be appreciated if there’s sooner or later a totally worked-out type of Normal Disciplinics — which might most likely take a century to develop. Its implantation would require a suitably modern transformation of universities and faculties, each within the structuring of the so known as ‘topics’ or ‘programs’ and within the fundamental assumptions of educational pedagogy — which, in opposition to its higher judgement, nonetheless clings to the briefcase-and-box concept, the place educating and studying is nothing however transferring data from the professor’s briefcase to the scholars’ file packing containers, regardless that it has lengthy been recognized that studying can solely happen via a direct participation within the disciplines. Establishing an instructional system with discipline-based content material and strategies would without delay be the one practical solution to counteract the atrophy of the tutorial system, based on a reformed concept of the topics and duties of a Nice Home of Data.[1]

On the whole, a self-discipline will “include” its personal studying mannequin and its personal sense of “progress”. Provided that we are able to get ahold of the training mannequin in our self-discipline of selection, then we are able to begin to tackle this primary query.

An speculation[edit]

A examine plan that places learners into contact with new ideas and strategies in such a means that they aren’t overwhelmed, and but are regularly challenged would be the finest. For instance, this may very well be executed by fixing progressively more durable issues (and going again to simpler ones whenever you get caught).

An experiment[edit]

Have a look at totally different interplay histories and “add up” the ideas discovered and the heuristics used. There are some options of social interplay (like asking questions) that we may use to guess how a lot folks knew prematurely.

Query B. Does our instrumentation of the training mannequin have cheap constancy?[edit]

In the absolute best state of affairs, we’ve got an in depth mannequin of studying that signifies clearly what folks know, and the way they bought there, the place they’ll go subsequent, and what steps are required. In apply, the mannequin will most likely be a bit extra sloppy.

An speculation[edit]

The standard of the training mannequin might be decided by the standard of our underlying illustration of “area” or “disciplinary” data.

An experiment[edit]

If we’ve got a computer-based peeragogy platform that may help “normal” coursework, and a instructor who’s keen to run a course utilizing this platform, then we are able to see whether or not our instrumentation predicts “conventional” measures of success within the course.

Query C. Which interventions have the most important payoff?[edit]

An speculation[edit]

We should always be capable to use fashions of studying results to check out a variety of potential interventions.

An experiment[edit]

Make the given intervention, and measure the whole influence on studying throughout the inhabitants. (This requires a reasonably subtle studying mannequin and analysis equipment!)

Some additional reflections[edit]

The way you resolve to be taught, and the way you resolve to do analysis, may have some vital affect on the type of group you convene! In case you plan to observe a clearly delineated pre-existing course, possibly you do not “want” peeragogy. Then again, when you’re aiming to construct peer help that works, you’ll undoubtedly wish to put some thought into your studying mannequin!


  1. Sloterdijk, P. (2013). You Should Change Your Life, Polity Press. (Tr. Wieland Hoban)

This part about organizing Co-Studying rests on the belief that studying at all times occurs in a context, whether or not this context is a structured “course” or a (doubtlessly) much less structured “studying area”. For the second we take into account the next division:

  • Organizing Co-learning Contexts
    • Programs (= “studying linked to a timeline or syllabus”)
    • Areas (= “studying not essentially linked to a timeline or syllabus”)

This part focuses on current studying contexts and examines intimately how they’ve been “organized” by their (co-)creators. (See additionally: the structural dimensions of group formation.)

At a “meta-level” of media, we are able to speak about this parallel construction:

  • Constructing Co-learning Platforms
    • Growth trajectories (e.g. “design, implement, check, repeat”)
    • Platform options (e.g. boards, wikis, possession fashions, and so on.)

A given studying setting with have each time-like and space-like options in addition to each designed-for and un-planned options. A given studying platform will encourage sure sorts of engagement and impose sure constraints. The query for each “lecturers” and “system designers” — in addition to for learners — needs to be: what options finest help studying?

The reply will rely on the training job and out there assets.

For instance, practically everybody agrees that the easiest way to be taught a overseas language is thru immersion. However not everybody who desires to be taught, say, French, can afford to drop the whole lot to go reside in a French-speaking nation. Thus, the space-like full immersion “remedy” is regularly sacrificed for course-like remedies (both by way of books, CDs, movies, or ongoing participation in semi-immersive dialogue teams).

System designers are additionally confronted with scarce assets: programmer time, software program licensing considerations, availability of peer help, and so forth. Whereas the best platform would (magically) include options pre-built, a extra practical method acknowledges that drawback fixing at all times takes time and power. The issue fixing method and related “studying orientation” can even rely on the duty and assets at hand. The next sections will develop this challenge additional via some particular case research.

Case examine 1 (pilot, accomplished): “Paragogy” and the After Motion Evaluate.[edit]

In our evaluation of our experiences as course organizers at P2PU, we (Joe Corneli and Charlie Danoff) used the US Military’s strategy of After Motion Evaluate (AAR). To cite from our paper [2]:

Because the identify signifies, the AAR is used to evaluate coaching workouts. It is very important word that whereas one particular person usually performs the function of evaluator in such a evaluate […] the evaluate itself occurs amongst friends, and examines the operations of the unit as an entire.

The 4 steps in an AAR are:

  1. Evaluate what was imagined to occur (coaching plans).
  2. Set up what occurred.
  3. Decide what was proper or unsuitable with what occurred.
  4. Decide how the duty needs to be executed in another way the following time.

The said objective of the AAR is to “establish strengths and shortcomings in unit planning, preparation, and execution, and information leaders to simply accept duty for shortcomings and produce a repair.”

We mixed the AAR with a number of ideas (see Dialogue part under), which we felt described efficient peer studying, and went via steps 1-Four for every precept to take a look at how properly it was applied at P2PU. This course of helped generate a variety of recommendation that may very well be utilized at P2PU or related establishments. By presenteding our paper on the Open Data Convention (OKCon), we had been capable of meet P2PU’s government director, Philipp Schmidt, in addition to different highly-involved P2PU individuals; our suggestions could have assisted in shaping the event trajectory for P2PU.

As well as, we developed a powerful prototype for constructive engagement with peer studying that we and others may deploy once more. In different phrases, variants on the AAR and the paragogical ideas may very well be included into future studying contexts as platform options [3] or re-used in a design/administration/moderation method [4]. For instance, we additionally used the AAR to assist construction our writing and subsequent work on paragogy.web.

Case Examine 2 (in progress): “Peeragogy”.[edit]

Our specific focus within the interviews was on drawing out and emphasizing the relational dimension of scholars, studying experiences inside their setting and, consequently, on inferring from their accounts a way of how they perceived and certainly constituted their setting. We requested them who they discovered with and from and the way. An extra query particularly centered on whom they thought to be their friends and the way they understood their friends as a supply and a website for studying.” [1]

On this part, we are going to interview and/or survey members of the Peeragogy neighborhood with questions just like these utilized by Boud and Lee [1] after which establish strengths and shortcomings as we did with the AAR above. These questions are derived from the AAR.

Questions (mentioned on an etherpad; revisions to the unique set of questions are marked in italics):

  1. Who have you ever discovered with or from within the Peeragogy mission? What are you doing to contribute to your friends’ studying?
  2. How have you ever been studying throughout the mission?
  3. Who’re your friends on this neighborhood, and why?
  4. What had been your expectations of participation on this mission? And, particularly, what did you (or do you) hope to be taught via participation on this mission?
  5. What really occurred throughout your participation on this mission (to date)? Have you ever been making progress in your studying objectives (if any; see prev. query) — or discovered something surprising, however attention-grabbing?
  6. What is true or unsuitable with what occurred (Alternatively: how would you assess the mission thus far?)
  7. How would possibly the duty be executed in another way subsequent time? (What’s “lacking” right here that will create a “subsequent time”, “sequel”, or “continuation”?)
  8. How would you want to make use of the Peeragogy handbook?
  9. Lastly, how would possibly we modify the questions, above, if we wished to use them in your peeragogical context?

Reflections on individuals’ solutions[edit]

The questions had been meant to assist individuals mirror on, and alter, their apply (i.e. their fashion of participation). There’s a pressure, nonetheless, between altering midstream and studying what we would do in another way subsequent time. There’s a associated pressure between preliminary construction and figuring issues out as we go. Arguably, if we knew, 100%, the way to do peeragogy, then we might not be taught very a lot in scripting this handbook. Difficulties and tensions could be resolved “prematurely” (see earlier feedback about “magical” applied sciences for peer manufacturing).

And but, regardless of our appreciable collected experience on collaboration, studying, and educating, there have been a wide range of tensions right here! Maybe we should always decide our “success” partly on how properly we cope with these. Among the tensions highlighted within the solutions are as follows:

  1. Gradual formation of “peer” relationships. There’s a sure irony right here: we’re finding out “peeragogy” and but many respondents didn’t really feel they had been actually attending to know each other “as friends”, a minimum of not but. Those that did have a “workforce” or who knew each other from earlier experiences, felt extra peer-like in these relationships. A number of remarked that they discovered much less from different particular person individuals and extra from “the collective” or “from everybody”. On the similar time, some respondents had ambiguous emotions about naming people within the first query: “I felt like I used to be going to depart folks out and that meaning they might get a nasty grade – ha!” One criterion for being a peer was to have constructed one thing collectively, so by this criterion, it stands to motive that we might solely slowly turn into friends via this mission.
  2. “Co-learning”, “co-teaching”, “co-producing”? One respondent wrote: “I’m studying about peeragogy, however I believe I am failing [to be] peeragog. I keep in mind that Howard [once] advised us that an important factor is that you have to be accountable not solely to your personal studying however to your friends’ studying. […] So the query is, are we studying from others by ourselves or are we […] serving to others to be taught?” One other wrote: “To my shock I noticed I may contribute organizationally with evaluations, and so on. And that I may present some content material round PLNs and group course of. Making an attempt to be a catalyst to a way of ahead motion and esprit de corps.”
  3. Weak construction on the outset, versus a extra “versatile” method. One respondent wrote: “I undoubtedly assume I do higher when introduced with a framework or scaffold to make use of for participation or content material improvement. […] (However maybe it’s simply that I am used to the previous means of doing issues).” But, the identical particular person wrote: “I’m eager about [the] applicability [of pæragogy] to new fashions for entrepreneurship enabling much less structured aggregation of individuals in new undertakings, freed of the requirement or want for an entrepreneurial visionary/supply/level particular person/proprietor.” There’s a sense that some confusion, notably in the beginning, could also be typical for peeragogy. With hindsight, one proposed “answer” could be to “have had a small group of individuals as a cadre that had met and brainstormed earlier than the primary reside session […] tasked [with] roles [and] on the identical web page”.
  4. Technological considerations. There have been fairly a range, maybe primarily to do with the query: how would possibly a (totally different) platform deal with the stress between “conversations” and “content material manufacturing”? For instance, will WordPress assist us “herald” new contributors, or wouldn’t it be higher to make use of an open wiki? One other respondent famous the utility for a lot of readers of a take-away PDF model. The positioning ( needs to be “[a] place for folks to share, remark, mentor and co-learn collectively in an ongoing vogue.”
  5. Pattern dimension. Be aware that solutions are nonetheless trickling in. How ought to we interpret the response price? Maybe what issues is that we’re getting “sufficient” responses to make an evaluation. One respondent proposed asking questions in a extra ongoing vogue, e.g., asking people who find themselves leaving: “What made you wish to give up the mission?”

With regard to Factors 1 and a pair of, we would use some “icebreaking” strategies or a “buddy system” to pair folks as much as work on particular initiatives. The mission’s “groups” could have been meant to do that, however dedication or buy-in on the workforce stage was not at all times excessive (and in lots of instances, a “workforce” ended up being comprised of only one particular person). It does appear that because the progress has progressed, we’ve got begun to construct instruments that would tackle Level 3: for instance, the Idea Map may very well be developed right into a course of diagram that will used to “triage” a mission at its outset, assist mission individuals resolve about their roles and objectives. Level Four appears to devolve to the normal pressure between the “ok” and the “finest”: we’ve got used an current platform to maneuver ahead in an “satisfactory” means. And but, some technological enhancements could also be wanted for future initiatives in pæragogy. (Moreover, word that our selection to make use of a CC0 license implies that if different folks discover the content material helpful, they’re welcome to deploy it on their very own platform, if they like.) Lastly, Level 5 remains to be up within the air (extra solutions extra be coming in shortly – I believe I’ve despatched round sufficient reminders). Hopefully the questionnaire might be helpful to the group even with a not-100% response price! Factors Four and 5 are associated, in that an ongoing questionnaire for folks leaving (or becoming a member of) the mission may very well be applied as a reasonably easy know-how, which would offer suggestions for website maintainers. Gathering somewhat info as a situation of subscribing or unsubscribing looks like a secure, lightweight, solution to be taught in regards to the customers (tho there’s at all times the likelihood that quite than unsubscribing, non-participating customers will simply filter messages from the location).

An underlying pressure (or synergy?) — between studying and producing — was highlighted in our earlier work on paragogy. If we be taught by producing, that’s good. Nonetheless, I’ve argued in [4] that paragogical praxis relies much less on producing and extra on reusing. If downstream customers of this handbook discover it to, certainly, be helpful, we could have executed sufficient. For all we all know, we’re the “cadre” (see above) charged with figuring out how finest to do issues in “subsequent rounds”!And, with this, we flip to a 3rd case examine, the place our work to date is reapplied in an offline academic context.


We rethink the appropriateness of the AAR and the paragogy ideas in contexts past P2PU, utilizing Lisewski and Joyce as a information to our (meta-)critique and evaluation.

Lately, the instruments, data base and discourse of the training know-how occupation has been bolstered by the looks of conceptual paradigms such because the ‘5 stage e-moderating mannequin’ (Salmon, 2000) and the brand new mantra of ‘communities of apply’ (Wenger, 1998). This paper will argue that, though these frameworks are helpful in informing and guiding studying know-how apply, there are inherent risks in them turning into too dominant a discourse. The principle focus might be on the ‘5 stage e-moderating mannequin’ as offering an exemplar of a discourse which is in peril of forming a ‘grand narrative’ (Lyotard, 1984) or totalizing rationalization of the way to design and ship on-line coaching programmes. — Lisewski and Joyce

In a way, the extra reified a sample, the much less we be taught by deploying it (see these feedback). If we had been making an attempt to validate the paragogy mannequin just by becoming suggestions to it (Case Examine 2), that will be an act of mental dishonesty. Nonetheless, the act of becoming information to this mannequin, as a constructive and inventive act, is the truth is helpful — and an indication that we’re nonetheless studying about what makes paragogy work. Not solely on a theoretical stage (summed up under), but in addition on a technological stage (see this web page).

Paragogical Ideas… Reflections on apply and expertise recommend…
1. Altering context as a decentered heart. We work together by altering the area. 1. Develop empirical research and a important equipment.It appears we start with weak ties, after which expertise a sluggish formation of “peer” relationships, as we type and re-form our social context, and are available to raised perceive our objectives.
2. Meta-learning as a font of data. We work together by altering what we find out about ourselves. 2. Discover companions for the journey. We be taught quite a bit about ourselves by interacting with others. However individuals wrestle to seek out the correct solution to have interaction: “co-learning”, “co-teaching”, or “co-producing”? Furthermore, “Individuals come–they keep for some time, they flourish, they build–and they go.”
3. Friends present suggestions that wouldn’t be there in any other case. We work together by altering our perspective on issues. 3. Work with actual customers. We start with a weak construction on the outset however this may occasionally afford a extra “versatile” method as time goes on (see additionally this handbook part which gives recommendation on designing actions that assist create a “versatile construction”).
4. Studying is distributed and nonlinear. We work together by altering the way in which issues join. 4. Examine and construct nonlinear interfaces. There are a variety of technological considerations, which in a big half must do with tensions between “content material manufacturing” and “dialog”, and to a lesser extent critique the platforms we’re utilizing.
5. Understand the dream when you can, then get up! We work together by altering our targets. 5. Restrict philosophizing. Even with a small group, we are able to extract significant concepts about peer studying and type a powerful collective effort, which strikes issues ahead for these concerned: this implies work. We might not get the identical outcomes via “pure contemplation”.

This desk appears to means that paragogy is much less of a grand narrative and extra of a patchwork assortment of methods or heuristics for group work. Reasonably than narrativizing peer studying, paragogy itself offers a non-linear interface that we are able to plug into and adapt the place applicable (like we tailored our questionnaire’s questions in Case Examine 2). As an alternative of 1 grand narrative, we see a rising assortment of “use instances”. The extra we share our apply and expertise having to do with co-organizing studying or constructing platforms for a similar, the extra strong and helpful paragogy will turn into. It might by no means turn into a “rigorous self-discipline”! But when not, that’s OK.


  1. Boud, D. and Lee, A. (2005). ‘Peer studying’ as pedagogic discourse for analysis schooling. Research in Larger Schooling, 30(5):501–516.
  2. Joseph Corneli and Charles Jeffrey Danoff, Paragogy, in Sebastian Hellmann, Philipp Frischmuth, Sören Auer, and Daniel Dietrich (eds.), Proceedings of the sixth Open Data Convention, Berlin, Germany, June 30 & July 1, 2011,
  3. Joseph Corneli and Alexander Mikroyannidis (2011). Personalised and Peer-Supported Studying: The Peer-to-Peer Studying Setting (P2PLE), Digital Schooling Evaluate, 20.
  4. Joseph Corneli, Paragogical Praxis, to look in E-Studying and Digital Media (ISSN 2042-7530), Quantity 9, Quantity 3, 2012
  5. Lisewski, B., and P. Joyce (2003). Analyzing the 5 Stage e-Moderating Mannequin: Designed and Emergent Apply within the Studying Know-how Career, Affiliation for Studying Know-how Journal, 11, 55-66.

Within the introduction to “Organizing a Studying Context”, we remarked {that a} “studying area” is solely doubtlessly much less structured than a “course”. For instance, a library tends to be extremely structured, with quiet rooms for studying, protocols for trying out books, a cataloging and shelving system that permits folks to seek out what they’re searching for, in addition to guidelines that deter vandalism and theft. (Digital libraries need not play by all the identical guidelines, however are nonetheless structured.)

However extra construction doesn’t at all times result in higher studying. In a 2010 Forbes article titled, “The Classroom in 2020,” George Kembel describes a future during which “Tidy lectures might be supplanted by messy real-world challenges.” The Stanford College of Design, (or “” — which Kemble co-founded and at the moment directs) is already well-known for its open collaborative areas, ample provide of post-it notes and markers, and improvisational brainstorm actions — virtually the other of conventional lecture-based studying.

One “surprising profit” of coping with real-world challenges is that we are able to change our method as we go. That is the way it works in peer studying: friends can resolve on totally different constructions not simply as soon as (say, in the beginning of a course), however all through the length of their time collectively. This manner, they’re by no means “caught” with current constructions, whether or not they be messy or clear. No less than… that is the best.

In apply, “bottlenecks” regularly come up. For instance, in a digital library context, there could also be bottlenecks having to do with software program improvement, organizational assets, neighborhood good will, or entry to funding — and doubtless the entire above. In a didactic context, it might be so simple as one particular person figuring out one thing that others don’t.

Whereas we will not get rid of shortage in a single stroke, we are able to design actions for peer studying which might be “shortage conscious” and that assist us transfer within the course of adaptive studying constructions.

Planning Peer Studying Actions[edit]

We start with two easy questions:

  • How will we choose an applicable studying exercise?
  • How will we go about making a studying exercise if we do not discover an current one?

“Planning a studying exercise” ought to imply planning an efficient studying exercise, and specifically meaning one thing that folks can and can have interaction with. In brief, an applicable studying exercise could also be one that you just already do! On the very least, present actions can present a “seed” for much more efficient ones.

This is somewhat trick that will help you maintain centered on belongings you’re making an attempt to do. Get a bunch of index playing cards and do that day-after-day: 1. Sit down and write down all of the belongings you assume you’ll want to do proper then. […] Write them as quick little notes like a “to do checklist”. 2. Then, take the very first thing that you are able to do proper now and do it. Get it executed then cross it off the cardboard. 3. Preserve doing this, and when you consider one thing else you’ll want to do, put it on a card. Simply maintain filling them up. 4. On the finish of the day, return via your card and discover any unfinished issues and take away any that you will truthfully by no means do. 5. The following day, take all of the belongings you did not do from the day earlier than and replica them onto a brand new card, then begin with #1 once more. — Zed Shaw, within the Study Python the Onerous Approach boards

However when getting into unfamiliar territory, it may be tough to know the place to start. And bear in mind the bottlenecks talked about above? While you run into problem, ask your self: why is this tough? You would possibly strive adapting Zed Shaw’s train, and make a listing of limiting components, obstacles, and so on., then cross off these which you will discover a method to cope with (add an annotation as to why). For instance, you would possibly resolve to beat your lack of understanding in some space by hiring a tutor or knowledgeable guide, or by placing within the hours studying issues the arduous means (Zed would notably approve of the latter selection). If you cannot discover a technique to cope with some challenge, presumably you possibly can desk it, a minimum of for some time.

Strategic considering like this works properly for one particular person. What about whenever you’re planning actions for another person? Right here you must watch out: bear in mind, that is peer studying, not conventional “educating” or “curriculum design”. The primary rule of thumb for peer studying is: do not plan actions for others until you propose to to participate as a totally engaged participant. In any other case, it may be a peer studying exercise, nevertheless it’s not yours. (Maybe your engagement is simply as “designer” — that is OK. However when you do not plan to “get” in addition to “give”, you are probably not a peer — which is completely OK, however you would possibly discover different studying materials that may serve you higher than this handbook in that case!)

In brief, it will be helpful to stroll via the “what do you’ll want to do” and “why is it arduous” workouts from the standpoint of the entire individuals, preserving in thoughts that they may, basically, assume totally different roles. To the extent that you are able to do so, spell out what these roles are and what actions comprise them.

For instance, in a arithmetic studying context, you’ll be more likely to discover folks…

  • fixing textbook-style issues
  • discovering and sharing new issues
  • asking questions when one thing appears too tough
  • fixing expository materials to reply to critique
  • providing critique and evaluate of proposed options
  • providing constructive suggestions to questions (e.g. hints)
  • organizing materials into structured collections
  • engaged on purposes to real-world issues
  • doing “meta” analysis actions that analyse “what works” for any and the entire above

Every a kind of actions could also be “arduous” for one motive or one other. Specifically, as a system the totally different actions are inclined to rely on each other. In case you have folks working in a “scholar function” however nobody who can tackle a “TA function”, issues might be harder for the scholars. As a (co-)organizer, a part of your job is to strive to verify the entire related roles are lined by somebody (who could ultimately put on many hats).

You’ll be able to additional decompose every function into particular concrete actions. They may come within the type of directions to observe: “Easy methods to write critique” or “Easy methods to write a proof“. They may come within the type of accessible workouts (the place “accessible” relies on the particular person”): “Your first geometry drawback” or “Ninety-9 LISP issues”, and so on. Relying on the options of the training context, you could possibly help the written directions or workouts with reside/in-person suggestions (e.g. meta-critique to teach and information novice critics, an illustration, and so on.).

Our quick state of affairs: constructing actions for the Peeragogy Handbook[edit]

Including a bunch of actions to the handbook will not remedy all of our usability points, however we have agreed that they may assist quite a bit. So at this level, we’re revisiting the desk of contents and fascinated about every article or part from this angle:

  1. When this piece of textual content, what kind of data are we (and the reader) making an attempt to realize? Technical abilities (like studying the way to edit Remaining Minimize Professional), or summary abilities (like studying the way to make sense of information)? What is the takeaway? I.e., what is the level?
  2. What’s tough right here? What may be tough for another person?
  3. What studying exercise recipes may be applicable? (See under.)
  4. What customizations do we want for this specific software?

As a fast instance: designing a studying exercise for the present web page

  1. We would like to have the ability to give you efficient studying actions to accompany a “the way to” article for peer learners. These actions will lengthen the “the way to” facet from the written phrase to the world of motion.
  2. It may be tough for a few of us to “unplug” from all of the studying and writing that we’re now habituated to doing. However peer studying is not simply in regards to the trade of textual content: there are tons and plenty of methods to be taught.
  3. Like Neo (in one in every of our use instances), it may very well be helpful to “turn into extra conscious of the peer studying we do day-after-day”. And to consider “How do you be taught finest?”
  4. So, the proposed handbook exercise is to step away from the handbook for some time. In truth, why not take a media quick for a given time period and have a look at peer studying as a fundamental human exercise. (Hey, it simply sounds to me such as you would possibly have to unplug, man!)

Sources for figuring out a dozen or so “Studying Exercise Recipes”:[edit]

Really useful Studying[edit]

The Bootcamp Bootleg (CC-By-NC-SA) consists of a number of enjoyable actions to strive. Are you able to crack the code and outline new ones which might be equally cool?

Authored By Suz Burroughs

In both formal studying, casual studying or fashions which transition between the 2, there are various alternatives for learners to co-create the syllabus and/or define their very own plan of action. The sage on the stage of formal instruction should turn into on the most a information on the facet who acts as a coach showing solely when wanted quite than as a lecturer who determines the content material that the learners have to grasp. Within the following inspirational however definitely not prescriptive examples, we are going to give attention to co-learning strategies drawn from a Social Constructivist perspective, which inserts properly right here.

We provide a number of examples under to point out a variety of learner centered approaches. All of them are based mostly on co-learners internet hosting one another for one in every of a lot of digestible matters within the bigger topic space or area that the group shaped with the intention to discover. This will happen throughout a lot of media and timelines.

The next strategies will end in every co-learner gaining deep data in a particular subject and reasonable data throughout a number of matters. The distinctive pleasure of this method is that no two cohorts will ever be the identical. The content material will at all times be recent, related, and altering. A bunch may even reconvene with barely or dramatically totally different matters time and again utilizing the identical underlying course of.

The appropriateness of the learner-created syllabus approach relies on two components: 1) the involvement of specialists within the group and a pair of) the extent of proficiency of the group. On the whole, novices who could or could not have a deep curiosity in the subject material profit from extra construction and specialists who level to key ideas and texts. An instance of that is the college survey course for first or second yr college students who, we assume, want extra steerage as they enter the subject material. Graduate seminars are usually way more fluid, open dialogues between motivated specialists require little construction or steerage.

We additionally want efficient strategies for teams which include novices, specialists, and everybody in between. In teams with a variety of experience, it will be significant that every co-learner chooses to focus their deep inquiry on a subject that they’re much less aware of. This can even out the experience stage throughout the cohort in addition to be sure that a co-learner is neither bored nor dominating the dialogue.

Three instance designs to construction the training[edit]

Weekly matters construction[edit]

One solution to construction the course is to have every co-learner host a subject every week. Maybe a number of college students host their matters in the identical week. This development offers a rotation of shows and actions to help all the group in participating with the matters and challenges to the considering of the presenters in a constructive and respectful method.

Professional: co-learners have discrete timelines and manageable chunks of duty.

Con: the format could turn into disjointed, and the depth of inquiry will probably be considerably shallow.

Milestone based mostly construction[edit]

On this construction, every co-learner host their matters in parallel with related actions and milestones that the entire group strikes via collectively. Milestones will be set for a sure date, or the group can unlock their subsequent milestone each time all individuals have accomplished the earlier milestone. This second milestone timeline will be nice for casual teams the place participation ranges could range from week to week because of exterior components, and the sense of duty and game-like ranges will be motivating for a lot of co-learners.

Every co-learner could begin with a submit of lower than 500 phrases introducing the subject on a superficial stage. When everybody has executed this, the group would possibly transfer on to posting inquiries to the submit authors. Then, there could also be a abstract submit of the exercise to date with important suggestions or insights.

Professional: co- learners have extra time to digest a subject, formulate a fancy schema, and generate deeper questions.

Con: it will likely be a number of weeks earlier than the subject stage schema can type right into a broader understanding of the subject material or area (seeing the large image takes longer).

Relay studying construction.[edit]

That is just like the milestone construction. Nonetheless, co-learners rotate matters. If one learner posts an introductory write-up on a subject the primary cycle, they could be researching questions on one other subject within the subsequent cycle, posting a abstract in a 3rd, after which posting a abstract on their authentic subject within the fourth.

Professional: co-learners can expertise duty for a number of matters.

Con: co-learners could obtain a subject that’s poorly researched or in any other case uncared for.

Content material[edit]

An enormous variety of matters[edit]

Inside a topic of mutual curiosity to a bunch, there are a substantial variety of matters or questions. What’s necessary is that every co-learner can take duty for a fairly slim space given the length of the course or the timeline of the group. Areas which might be too broad will end in a really superficial understanding, and areas which might be too slim will end in a uninteresting expertise. For instance, in marine biology, matters akin to “the inter-tidal zone” could also be too broad for a course cycle of some weeks. Narrowing to 1 species could also be too particular for a course over a number of months.

Learner generated matters[edit]

Most cohorts may have some data of the shared space of curiosity or an adjoining space. It’s a good suggestion to respect the data and expertise that every member of the group brings to the desk. A facilitator or coordinator could generate a listing of potential subject areas, setting an instance of the dimensions of a subject. We propose that the individuals within the group are additionally polled for additions to the checklist. In massive programs, sending out a Google Kind by way of electronic mail will be an efficient solution to get a fast checklist with a excessive response price.

Skilled knowledgeable matters[edit]

If there isn’t any knowledgeable facilitator within the group, we recommend that the cohort start their journey with a number of interviews of specialists to uncover what the primary buzz phrases and areas of focus may be. One solution to find this kind of knowledgeable assist is thru contacting authors in the subject material on social networks, reviewing their posts for relevance, and reaching out with the request.

We advocate two folks interview the knowledgeable over video chat, for instance in a Hangout. One particular person conducts the interview, and one particular person takes notes and watches the time. We strongly recommend that the interview be outlined forward of time:

Heat up: Who’re you, what are your objectives, and why do you assume this interview will assist?

Foundational questions: Ask a number of questions which may elicit shortt solutions to construct rapport and get your interviewee speaking.

Inquiry: What folks say and what they do can typically be very totally different. Ask about matters required for mastery of the subject material (e.g. What are the areas somebody would want to find out about to be thought of proficient on this topic?). Additionally, ask questions that require storytelling. Keep away from superlative or close-ended questions.

Wrap up: Thank the interviewee for his or her time, and make sure you observe up by letting them know each what you discovered and what you completed as a result of they helped you.

Shared objectives and group norms[edit]

Selecting helpful outputs[edit]

Getting collectively for the sake of sharing what in a casual means will be pretty easy and considerably helpful. Most teams discover {that a} frequent objective and output which might be explicitly outlined and documented assist to have interaction, inspire, and drive the group. For the examples above, the group could resolve to create a weblog with posts on the varied matters or create a wiki the place they’ll share their insights. Different outputs can embrace neighborhood service initiatives, enterprise proposals, suggestions to senior administration or administration, new merchandise, and extra. The hot button is to transcend sharing for sharing sake and transfer towards an output that might be of use past the co-learning group. This exercise is finest described in Connectivist concept because the particular case of networked studying the place we discover proof of studying in collective motion and/or behavioral change in teams quite than a psychological or neurological course of in people.

Group cohesion (a.ok.a. the foundations of the street)[edit]

One problem of this sort of collaboration is that every group might want to resolve on norms, acceptable practices and behaviors. Culturally numerous teams specifically could run into communication or different points until there’s a solution to create shared expectations and talk preferences.

A technique to do that is with a workforce constitution. It is a dwelling doc the place the preliminary guidelines of engagement can reside for reference. The group could add or edit this doc over time based mostly on expertise, and that could be a welcome factor! This documentation is a large asset for brand spanking new members becoming a member of the group who wish to contribute shortly and successfully. Any co-editing phrase processing program will work, however we strongly advocate one thing that may be edited concurrently and that lives within the cloud. (Google Docs is handy as a result of you may also embed your Constitution into one other website.)

Strive beginning with the next three sections, and permit a while for the group to co-edit and negotiate the doc between icebreakers and kicking off the official studying course of.

Mission: Why are you forming the group? What do you wish to accomplish collectively?

Norms: Use netiquette? No flaming? Submit your trip days to a shared calendar? Cultural norms?

Members:It’s helpful to incorporate a photograph and a hyperlink to a public profile akin to Twitter, Google+ or Fb.

Assessments and suggestions loops[edit]

Co-authored evaluation rubrics[edit]

Assessments. Quizzes. Exams. How can the co-learning group assess their efficiency?

A majority of these programs profit from an method just like teaching. Set objectives as people and a bunch at first, outline what success seems like, define steps which might be wanted to attain the aim, verify in on the aim progress periodically, and assess the outcomes on the finish of the course in opposition to the aim standards. Targets could embrace area experience, a enterprise consequence, a paper demonstrating mastery, a co-created useful resource, and even the standard of collaboration and adherence to shared group norms.

Learner created assessments[edit]

One other efficient solution to create an evaluation is to resolve on a person or group output and create a peer evaluation rubric based mostly on the objectives of the person or group.

One solution to create a rubric is to spend a while defining the qualities you need your output to have based mostly on optimistic examples. Maybe a bunch desires to create a weblog. Every particular person on the workforce could establish the qualities of an incredible weblog submit based mostly on examples that they admire. They will use that instance to create a standards for evaluation of co-learner authored weblog posts. We advocate that the standards have a Zero to five level scale with Zero being non-existent and 5 being very good. Writing a number of indicators within the 1, 3, and 5 columns helps to calibrate reviewers.

Create a shared doc, maybe beginning with a listing of standards. Collapse related standards into one merchandise, and create the symptoms or definitions of 1, 3, and 5 level efficiency. Agree on the rubric, and resolve on how the co-learners might be assigned evaluation duties. WIll everybody evaluate a minimum of two others? Will every co-learner product want a minimum of Three reviewers earlier than it goes reside? Will you employ a spreadsheet or a type to gather the assessments?

In a college setting, the teacher of report could want to approve a peer evaluation rubric, and it’s generally a good suggestion to have a number of outdoors specialists give suggestions on standards that the group could have missed.

Outdoors assessments[edit]

It’s potential that an teacher of report or related authority will create the evaluation for efficiency. In these instances, it’s essential that the co-learners have entry to the grading rubric forward of time in order that they’ll guarantee their actions and timeline will meet any necessities. On this case, it might be potential to require that the co-learners self-organize solely, or there could also be middleman assignments such because the constitution, mission plan or literary evaluate.

Cyclical use of those fashions[edit]

A lot extra to be taught[edit]

As talked about above, the enjoyment of this kind of studying is that no two teams will ever do it the identical. Their course of, objectives, and outcomes can all be distinctive. As designers and facilitators of this kind of studying setting, we are able to say it’s a wild journey! Every class is thrilling, refreshing, and on development. The co-learners turn into our lecturers.

If a bunch generates extra matters than it’s potential to cowl at one time given the variety of group members or if a bunch has plans to proceed indefinitely, it’s at all times potential to arrange a system the place potential matters are collected always. These unexplored matters will be harvested to be used in one other studying cycle, persevering with till the group achieves complete mastery.

This format just isn’t with out its personal distinctive pitfalls: some challenges are learner disorientation or frustration in a brand new studying construction with ambiguous expectations and uneven participation. Some teams merely by no means gel, and we have no idea why they’ve failed to attain the cohesion required to maneuver ahead. Different teams are the precise reverse. Listed here are a number of dangers to think about if you need to strive the strategies steered right here and the way to mitigate them.

Uneven experience: Ask co-learners to be liable for matters which might be new to them.

Uneven participation and cohesion: Ask co-learners what they wish to do to inspire the group quite than imposing your personal concepts.

Consultants/facilitators that kill the dialog: Within the constitution or different documentation, explicitly state that the aim of the dialogue is to additional the dialog, and encourage specialists to permit others to discover their very own considering by asking probing (not main) questions.

Ambiguous objectives: Encourage the group to doc their mission and what they may do as a workforce. This will change over time, however it’s best to begin out with a transparent objective.


Make errors. Right course. Invite new views. Create a construction that everybody can work with. Change it when it breaks. Most of all, have enjoyable!

Huge Open On-line Programs (MOOCs) are on-line studying occasions that may happen synchronously and asynchronously for months. Individuals assemble to listen to, see, and take part in backchannel communication throughout reside lectures. They learn the identical texts on the similar time, in accordance with a calendar. Studying takes place via self-organized networks of individuals, and is nearly fully decentralized: people and teams create blogs or wikis round their very own interpretations of the texts and lectures, and touch upon one another’s work; every particular person and group publicises their RSS feed, that are routinely aggregated by a particular (freely out there) software, gRSShopper. Daily, an electronic mail goes out to all individuals, aggregating exercise streams from all of the blogs and wikis that have interaction that week’s materials. MOOCs are a sensible software of a studying concept often called “connectivism” that situates studying within the networks of connections made between people and between texts.

Not all MOOCs are Connectivist MOOCs (generally known as cMOOCs). Platforms akin to Coursera, edX and Udacity are famously providing MOOCs which observe a extra conventional, centralized method (generally known as xMOOCs). In these xMOOCs a professor is taking the lead and the learning-experience is organized top-down. Nonetheless, some xMOOCs appear to undertake a extra blended method. As an illustration, the course E-learning and Digital Cultures will make use of on-line areas past the Coursera setting, and so they need some points of participation on this course to contain the broader social net.

On this chapter we’ll give attention to cMOOCs. One would possibly surprise why a course would wish to be ‘large’ and what ‘large’ means. cMOOC-pioneer Stephen Downes explains that his focus is on the event of a community construction, versus a bunch construction, to handle the course. In a community construction there’s no central focus, for instance, a central dialogue. That is additionally the explanation why he considers the determine of 150 (energetic individuals), Dunbar’s Quantity, because the cut-off line with the intention to speak about ‘large’:

Why Dunbar’s quantity? The reason being that it represents the utmost (theoretical) variety of folks an individual can moderately work together with. What number of blogs can an individual learn, observe and reply to? Perhaps round 150, if Dunbar is right. Which implies that if we’ve got 170 blogs, then the blogs do not represent a ‘core’ – folks start to be selective about which blogs they’re studying, and totally different (and interacting) subcommunities can type.


Historically, students distinguish between three most important classes of studying theories: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Some would add a fourth one: connectivism, however that is disputed. One attention-grabbing software of connectivism, a studying concept and apply for the digital period, is the Huge Open On-line Course.

A studying concept for the digital age[edit]

The connectivist concept describes studying as a course of of making connections and growing networks. It’s based mostly on the premise that data exists out on the earth, quite than inside a person’s thoughts. Connectivism sees the community as a central metaphor for studying, with a node within the community being an idea (information, emotions, photos, and so on.) that may be meaningfully associated to different nodes. Not all connections are of equal power on this metaphor; the truth is, many connections could also be fairly weak.

On a sensible stage, this method recommends that studying ought to give attention to the place to seek out info (streams), and the way to consider and mash up these streams, quite than making an attempt to enter a number of (perishable) info into one’s cranium. Realizing the pipes is extra necessary than figuring out what precisely every pipe accommodates at a given second.

Stephen Downes and George Siemens promote the thought of connectivism. In addition they apply it, by organizing Huge Open On-line Programs (MOOCs): for example, Change11. Individuals are free to take part at will. Every week a topic is mentioned throughout synchronous classes, that are recorded and uploaded for reference on the Change11 web site. The positioning additionally consists of an archive of day by day newsletters and RSS-feeds of weblog posts and tweets from individuals.

MOOCs are usually very learner-centered. Individuals are inspired to pursue their very own pursuits and hyperlink up with others who would possibly assist them. However the distributed and free nature of the initiatives additionally results in complaints; individuals typically discover it complicated once they try to observe up on all of the discussions (the facilitators say one mustn’t attempt to observe up on all the content material).

Stephen Downes explains in What Connectivism Is: “This means a pedagogy that (a) seeks to explain ‘profitable’ networks (as recognized by their properties, which I’ve characterised as variety, autonomy, openness, and connectivity); and (b) seeks to explain the practices that result in such networks, each within the particular person and in society (which I’ve characterised as modeling and demonstration (on the a part of a instructor) and apply and reflection (on the a part of a learner).”

George Siemens says connectivism is a “studying concept for the digital age.”

Connectivism in apply[edit]

One instance of a MOOC that claims to embody the connectivist concept is The “the way it works” part of the location explains what connectivism means in apply.

The MOOC organizers developed a lot of methods to mix the distributed nature of the discussions with the necessity for a continually up to date overview and for a federated construction. So, in case your workforce desires to prepare an open on-line course, these are 5 factors to consider:

There isn’t a physique of content material the individuals must memorize, however the studying outcomes from actions they undertake. The actions are totally different for every particular person. A course schedule with steered studying, assignments for synchronous or asynchronous classes is supplied (utilizing Google Docs spreadsheets internally, Google Calendar externally – one may additionally use a wiki), however individuals are free to select and select. Usually there’s a subject, actions, studying assets and sometimes a visitor speaker for every week. One ought to even mirror upon the query whether or not a start- and finish date are literally wanted. It’s essential to clarify the actual philosophy of this sort of MOOC, and this proper from the outset, as a result of chances are high learners will include expectations knowledgeable by their extra conventional studying experiences.

  1. It is very important focus on the “inner” points, akin to self-motivation: what do the individuals wish to obtain, what’s their bigger aim? And what are their intentions once they choose sure actions (quite than different prospects)? Everybody has her personal meant consequence. Recommend that individuals meditate on all this and jot down their targets. And the way can they keep away from turning into stressed and getting depressed as a result of they really feel they can’t “sustain with all this?” The facilitators ought to have have a look at these motivations, even when it is not possible to help each participant individually (for large-scale MOOCs).
  2. Ideally, individuals ought to put together for this course by buying the mandatory digital abilities. Which abilities are “crucial” will be determined by the group itself prematurely. It is all about choosing, selecting, remixing – additionally known as “curating”. There are many instruments which you should use for this: blogs, social bookmarks, wikis, mindmaps, boards, social dashboards, networks akin to Twitter with their prospects akin to hashtags and lists. Perhaps these instruments are self-evident for some, however not essentially for all of the individuals.
  3. The course just isn’t positioned in a single place however is distributed throughout the online: on numerous blogs and running a blog platforms, on numerous teams and on-line networks, on photo- and video-sharing platforms, on mindmaps and different visualization platforms, on numerous instruments for synchronous classes. This wide range is in itself an necessary studying aspect.
  4. There are weekly synchronous classes (utilizing Blackboard collaborate, or related group chatting software). Throughout these classes, specialists and individuals give shows and enter into discussions. Teams of individuals even have synchronous conferences at different venues (akin to Second Life). Attempt to plan this properly prematurely!
  5. Many individuals extremely respect efforts to present an summary of the proceedings. Particularly, the Each day Publication is a sort of hub, a neighborhood newspaper. In that Each day there’s additionally a listing of the weblog posts mentioning the course-specific tag (e.g. “Change11”), additionally the tweets with hashtag #change11 are listed within the Each day. After all, the MOOC has a website the place classes, newsletters and different assets are archived and dialogue threads will be learn.

From the very starting of the course, it is necessary to clarify the significance of tagging the varied contributions, to recommend a hashtag.

For harvesting all this distributed content material, Stephen Downes advocates the usage of gRSShopper, which is a private net setting that mixes useful resource aggregation, a private dataspace, and private publishing (Downes developed it and wish to construct a hosted model – finally financed by way of Kickstarter). The gRSShopper will be discovered on a registration web page, which is helpful primarily for sending the e-newsletter. It lets you set up your on-line content material any means you need, to import content material – your personal or others’ – from distant websites, to remix and repurpose it, and to distribute it as RSS, net pages, JSON information, or RSS feeds. Downes: “For instance, the gRSShopper harvester will harvest a hyperlink from a given feed. An individual, if she or he has admin privileges, can rework this hyperlink right into a submit, including his or her personal feedback. The submit will include details about the unique hyperlink’s creator and journal. Content material in gRSShopper is created and manipulated via the usage of system code that permits directors to reap, map, and show information, in addition to to hyperlink to and create their very own content material. gRSShopper can be meant to behave as a fully-fledged publishing software.” (for alternate options, see the applied sciences part additional on).

Alternate options for registrations: Google Teams for example. However particular guidelines about privateness needs to be handled: what would be the standing of the contributions? On this MOOC the standing is public and open by default, for Downes this is a crucial aspect of the course.

Applied sciences[edit]

Some MOOCs use Moodle, however Downes dislikes the centralization facet and it is not as open because it may very well be, saying “folks really feel higher writing in their very own area.” Different prospects: Google Teams, WordPress, Diigo, Twitter, Fb web page, Second Life; however every course makes use of totally different mixtures of the various instruments on the market. Individuals select their setting – whether or not it’s WoW or Minecraft. College students use Blogger, WordPress, Tumblr, Posterous as running a blog instruments.

Give individuals a way to contribute their blogfeed. In “Add a New Feed,” Downes explains the way to get this construction and extra explanations (by way of movies) with the intention to contribute their weblog feed. The administrator on this case makes use of gRSShopper to course of the content material and put it in a database, course of it and ship it to different folks. Alternatively one can use Google Reader (the checklist of feeds is obtainable as an OPML file – which will be imported to different platforms). There’s additionally a plug-in for WordPress that permits you to use a Google Doc spreadsheet for the feeds, then WordPress for the aggregation). Many different content material administration programs have RSS harvesting options.

Every particular person may run her personal aggregator, however Downes gives it as a service. However aggregators are wanted, whether or not particular person, centralized or each.

Specialised harvesting[edit]

Utilizing Twitter, Diigo, Scrumptious, Google Teams, If This Then That (IFTTT) and Feed43 (take odd net web page and switch it into an RSS feed).

Synchronous environments[edit]

Synchronous platforms embrace Blackboard Collaborate (used now for Change11); Adobe Join; Huge Blue Button; WizIQ; Fuze; WebX; webcasting; net radio; videoconferencing with Skype or Google Hangout at the side of Livestream or ustream.television. Or take the Skype/Hangout audiostream and broadcast is as webradio. Arrange and check forward of time, however do not hesitate to experiment.

Publication or Feeds[edit]

Feeds are essential (see earlier remarks in regards to the Each day e-newsletter). You should use Twitter or a Fb web page, Downes makes use of electronic mail, additionally creates an RSS model via gRSShopper and sends it via again to Fb and Twitter. For the remainder of us there’s WordPress, which you should use to create an electronic mail information letter. Downs additionally suggests this useful information on the way to design and construct an electronic mail e-newsletter with out loosing your thoughts!

Think about using a content material administration system and databases to place out specialised pages and the e-newsletter in a sublime means, nevertheless it requires a studying curve. In any other case, use blogs / wikis.


Individuals are strongly inspired to touch upon every others’ blogs and to launch dialogue threads. By doing in order that they apply a elementary social media ability – growing networks by commenting on numerous locations and fascinating in conversations. It is very important have actions and get folks to be concerned quite than sit again.

For an in-depth presentation, please take a look at Facilitating a Huge Open On-line Course by Stephen Downes, during which he focuses on analysis and survey points, making ready occasions, and different necessities.



Additional studying[edit]

Related Handbook pages[edit]

Private Studying Networks

All collaborative work is managed, or facilitated, ultimately. Strategies of managing initiatives, together with studying initiatives, vary from extra formal and structured to informal and unstructured. As facilitator, you may see your Peeragogy neighborhood continually modify because it seeks an equilibrium between order and chaos, permitting everybody to collaborate at their very own tempo with out shedding focus, and in such a way that the collective can ship – whether or not that is a product or a studying expertise.

Pointers for participation[edit]

  • Settle for that some folks wish to watch what’s going on earlier than leaping in. This doesn’t suggest you must maintain them endlessly. After some time, you could un-enroll individuals who do not add any worth to the neighborhood. In our Peeragogy mission, we have requested folks to re-enroll a number of instances. Most renew; a number of depart.
  • Settle for that folks could solely contribute somewhat: if this contribution is sweet it’ll add worth to the entire.
  • Perceive that you would be able to not impose strict deadlines on volunteers; modify targets accordingly.
  • Let your work be “open” within the sense described in Wikipedia’s Impartial Level of View coverage.
  • Give roles to individuals and outline some “power facilities” who will take the lead on particular objects within the mission.
  • Arrange common face-to-face or on-line conferences to speak about progress and what’s wanted in upcoming days/weeks.
  • Ask individuals to be clear about when they are going to be able to ship their contributions.
  • Have clear deadlines, however enable contributions that are available after the deadline — basically, be versatile.
  • Add a newcomer part in your on-line platform to assist new arrivals get began. Seasoned individuals are sometimes desirous to function mentors.

Participation in business-oriented initiatives[edit]

Once we take into consideration mission administration in a corporation, we regularly relate to well-established instruments and processes. For instance, we are going to use the Undertaking Administration Physique of Data (PMBOK) as a normal. For the Undertaking Administration Institute (PMI) and most employees, these requirements are the important thing to mission success. In classical mission administration, duties and deadlines are clearly outlined. We’ll, for instance, use Program Analysis and Evaluate Technic (PERT) to investigate and symbolize duties. We frequently symbolize the mission schedule utilizing a Gantt chart. These are simply two of the mission administration instruments that illustrate how mission administration rests firmly on its engineering background. In these very structured initiatives, every actor is predicted to work precisely as deliberate and to ship his a part of the work on time; each particular person delay doubtlessly resulting in a collective delay.

Participation in academic initiatives[edit]

If we search for analogies between mission administration and schooling, we are able to discover some similarities among the many studying fashions cited right here. In a paper known as “Shifting from Pedagogy to Andragogy” by Hiemstra and Sisco, we see how college students maintain a passive function (on a cognitive stage) within the pedagogy mannequin. They’re following a plan or syllabus that has been designed by the teacher and that will not change throughout the session. College students must full all their duties on time; in different phrases, return their workouts to the instructor earlier than the due date. In a Peeragogy mission, whose roots lie nearer to andragogy than in pedagogy, participation to the mission is much less regulated (see From peer studying to peeragogy).

As Peeragogy mission members anticipate to interrupt the 90/9/1 rule and produce on board greater than 1% of creators and 9% of editors, additionally they bear in mind the Lengthy Tail rule. “The time period Lengthy Tail has lately gained recognition, referring to the retailing technique of promoting numerous distinctive objects with comparatively small portions bought of every. In different phrases, folks working in Peeragogy ought to settle for that some individuals solely contribute few concepts (or could also be even only one!). Going additional, folks could even be allowed to simply watch a peeragogy mission happening with out creating or enhancing, with the intention to perceive its tradition earlier than feeling prepared to leap in and contribute extra actively.


Cultivating a results-oriented peer-learning program in a company studying ecosystem entails a number of tweaks of the method and instruments we mentioned in relation to extra open, numerous networks.

Jay Cross talks about Workscapeson Vimeo.

The Workscape, a platform for studying[edit]

Formal studying takes place in lecture rooms; casual studying occurs in workscapes. A workscape is a studying ecology. Because the setting of studying, a workscape consists of the office. In truth, a workscape has no boundaries. No two workscapes are alike. Your workscape could embrace being coached on giving efficient shows, calling the assistance desk for a proof, and researching an {industry} on the Web. My workscape may embrace taking part in a neighborhood of subject technicians, trying issues up on a search engine, and dwelling in France for 3 months. Creating a platform to help casual studying is analogous to landscaping a backyard. A significant part of casual studying is pure studying, the notion of treating folks as organisms in nature. The persons are free-range learners. Our function is to guard their setting, present vitamins for development, and let nature take its course. A panorama designer’s aim is to conceptualize a harmonious, unified, pleasing backyard that makes the many of the website at hand. A workscape designer’s aim is to create a studying setting that will increase the group’s longevity and well being and the person’s happiness and well-being. Gardeners don’t management vegetation; managers don’t management folks. Gardeners and managers have affect however not absolute authority. They will’t make’a plant match into the panorama or an individual match right into a workforce. In an excellent Workscape, employees can simply discover the folks and knowledge they want, studying is fluid and new concepts circulate freely, company residents reside and work by the group’s values, folks know the easiest way to get issues executed, employees spend extra time creating worth than dealing with exceptions, and everybody finds their work difficult and fulfilling.

The technical infrastructure of the Workscape[edit]

When a corporation is enhancing its Workscape, shopper purposes is an efficient means to consider what’s required. Ask net-savvy youthful employees how they wish to be taught new abilities, and so they carry up the options they take pleasure in in different companies:

  • Personalize my expertise and make suggestions, like Amazon
  • Make it straightforward for me to attach with buddies, like Fb
  • Preserve me in contact with colleagues and associates in different corporations, as on LinkedIn
  • Persistent reputations, as at eBay, so you possibly can belief who you’re collaborating with
  • A number of entry choices, like a financial institution that gives entry by ATM, the Net, telephone, or human tellers
  • Don’t overload me. Let me be taught from YouTube, an FAQ, or linking to an knowledgeable
  • Present me what’s scorching, like Reddit, Digg, MetaFilter, or Fark do
  • Give me single sign-on, like utilizing my Fb profile to entry a number of purposes
  • Let me select and subscribe to streams of data I’m eager about, like BoingBoing, LifeHacker or Huffpost.
  • Present a single, easy, all-in-one interface, like that supplied by Google for search
  • Assist me be taught from a neighborhood of kindred spirits, like SlashDot, Reddit, and MetaFilter
  • Give me a solution to voice my opinions and present my persona, as on my weblog
  • Present me what others are eager about, as with social bookmarks like Diigo and Scrumptious
  • Make it straightforward to share images and video, as on Flickr and YouTube
  • Leverage “the knowledge of crowds,” as once I pose a query to my followers on Twitter or Fb
  • Allow customers to price content material, like “Favoriting” an merchandise on Fb or +!ing is on Google or YouTube

A few of these shopper purposes are easy to duplicate in-house. Others will not be. You’ll be able to’t afford to duplicate Fb or Google behind your firewall. That mentioned, there are many purposes you possibly can implement at cheap price. Be skeptical in case your collaborative infrastructure that doesn’t embrace these minimal features:

Profiles – for finding and contacting folks with the correct abilities and background. Profile ought to include photograph, place, location, electronic mail tackle, experience (tagged so it’s searchable). IBM’s Blue Pages profiles embrace the way to attain you (noting whether or not you’re on-line now), reporting chain (boss, boss’s boss, and so on.), hyperlink to your weblog and bookmarks, folks in your community, hyperlinks to paperwork you regularly share, members of your community.

Exercise stream – for monitoring the group pulse in actual time, sharing what you’re doing, being referred to helpful info, asking for assist, accelerating the circulate of reports and knowledge, and maintaining with change

Wikis – for writing collaboratively, eliminating a number of variations of paperwork, preserving info out within the open, eliminating pointless electronic mail, and sharing duty for updates and error correction

Digital conferences – to make it straightforward to satisfy on-line. Minimal characteristic set: shared display screen, shared white board, textual content chat, video of individuals. Bonus options: persistent assembly room (your workplace on-line), avatars.

Blogs – for narrating your work, sustaining your digital repute, recording accomplishments, documenting knowledgeable data, displaying folks what you’re as much as to allow them to assist out

Bookmarks – to facilitate looking for hyperlinks to info, uncover what sources different persons are following, find specialists

Cell entry – Half of America’s workforce generally works away from the workplace. Sensible telephones are surpassing PCs for connecting to networks for entry and participation. Telephones submit most Tweets than computer systems. Google designs its apps for cellular earlier than porting them to PCs.

Social community – for on-line dialog, connecting with folks, and the entire above features.


Studying used to give attention to what was in a person’s head. The person took the check, bought the diploma, or earned the certificates. The brand new studying focuses on what it takes to do the job proper. The office is an open-book examination. What employee does not have a mobile phone and an Web connection? Utilizing private info pipelines to get assist from colleagues and the Web to entry the world’s info is inspired. In addition to, it’s most likely the workforce that should carry out, not a single particular person. Thirty years in the past, three-quarters of what a employee have to do the job was saved in her head; now it’s lower than 10%.

Creator: Maria Arenas, with contributions by Charlie Danoff

Facilitation is the method of enabling teams to work cooperatively and successfully. Co-facilitating turns into necessary when folks should cooperate to finish studying duties in environments like colleges, universities, church buildings, and workplaces. Friends co-facilitate by taking and sharing management roles to maneuver the peer studying course of alongside quicker and/or extra effectively. The principle objective of co-facilitation is to supply and obtain help from a cohort who’s invested within the mission.

Co-facilitating in peer-to-peer studying[edit]

Co-facilitation generally will be present in particular collaborations between two or extra individuals who want one another to finish a job, for instance, find out about a given topic, creator a technical report, resolve an issue, or conduct analysis Dr. Fink writes in Creating Vital Studying Experiences(Jossey Bass, 2003) that “on this course of, there must be some sort of change within the learner. No change, no studying”. Vital studying requires that there be some sort of lasting change that’s necessary when it comes to the learner’s life; due to this fact a solution to measure the effectiveness of co-facilitation is that if there’s been a change within the peer group.

Which roles, competences and abilities do we have to co-facilitate?[edit]

Co-facilitation roles will be present in teams/groups like basketball, well being, Alcoholics Nameless, religious teams, and so on. For instance, self-help teams are composed of people that collect to share frequent issues and experiences related to a specific drawback, situation, sickness, or private circumstance.

“Freedom to Study” is among the many studying theories for which Carl Rogers was recognized. Commenting on Rogers’ associated work, Barrett-Lennard remarked: “…he supplied a number of hypothesized normal ideas. These included: We can not train one other particular person straight; we are able to solely facilitate his studying. The construction and group of the self seems to turn into extra inflexible underneath risk; to calm down its boundaries when fully free from risk…. The tutorial state of affairs which most successfully promotes vital studying is one during which 1) risk to the self of the learner is diminished a minimal, and a pair of) differentiated notion of the sphere of expertise is facilitated.”

A part of the facilitator’s function is to create a secure place for studying to happen; however they need to additionally problem the individuals. As John Wood mentioned of teaching: “Be fast, however do not hurry.” John Heron articulated this nature of facilitation properly:

An excessive amount of hierarchical management, and individuals turn into passive and dependent or hostile and resistant. They wane in self-direction, which is the core of all studying. An excessive amount of cooperative steerage could degenerate right into a delicate sort of nurturing oppression, and should deny the group the advantages of completely autonomous studying. An excessive amount of autonomy for individuals and laissez-faire in your half, and so they could wallow in ignorance, false impression, and chaos.

Co-facilitating dialogue boards[edit]

If friends are making ready a discussion board dialogue, listed here are some concepts from “The software field”, that may be useful as tips for working this kind of conferences:

  • Clarify the significance of collaborative group work and make it a requirement.
  • Set up how you’ll talk within the discussion board
  • Concentrate on mutual blind spots in facilitating and observing others
  • Be careful for various rhythms of intervention”.

Co-facilitating wiki workflows[edit]

An excellent place to start for any co-facilitators working with a wiki is Wikipedia’s well-known “5 Pillars.”

  • Wikipedia is an encyclopedia
  • Wikipedia writes articles from a impartial point-of-view
  • Wikipedia is free content material that anybody can edit, use, modify, and distribute.
  • Editors ought to work together with one another in a respectful and civil method.
  • Wikipedia doesn’t have agency guidelines.

Co-facilitating reside classes[edit]

Studying experiences in Dwell Classes which embrace Social Media and co facilitating train is described within the article” Studying Re-imagined: Participatory, Peer, World, On-line“ by Howard Rheingold, we’ve got taken inspiration from his factors and re-mixed them barely.

  • Set up roles for co facilitators and individuals (moderator, technical recorder, author to take notes, and so on..).
  • Present a studying checklist – indicating what is de facto necessary and what’s extra “good to know”.
  • Ideally earlier than, or when the session begins, take a while to permit individuals to familiarize themselves with the instruments.
  • Introduce your self and your friends (co-facilitators) and ask the members to make a quick introduction of themselves.
  • Evaluate the agenda for the session, each to verify there is an agenda (at the beginning) and to verify the whole lot was lined (on the finish).
  • On-line instruments like: Mumble, Diigo, Etherpad and chat can be utilized to speak and work together within the session. Nonetheless, take into account whether or not individuals are eager about experimenting with a number of instruments. Usually extra instruments (and a few content material) can find yourself making duties more durable.
  • Preserve it Easy Silly, or KISS: Bear in mind you got here collectively together with your friends to perform one thing to not focus on an agenda or play with on-line instruments; maintain the whole lot as simply accessible as potential to make sure you notice your peer objectives.

Paragogical Motion Evaluate[edit]

Following any co-facilitating session it’s important that the co-facilitators come collectively and evaluate what occurred. A helpful framework is the Paragogical Motion Evaluate (PAR), based mostly on the U.S. Military’s After Motion Evaluate, which has 4 elements, to which we’ve got added a fifth. An extra distinction within the Paragogical Motion Evaluate is that it needn’t happen “after” the motion, however will be built-in into the motion (accordingly, we use a gift tense phrasing).

  • Evaluate what was imagined to occur (coaching plans)
  • Set up what is occurring
  • Decide what’s proper or unsuitable with what’s occurring
  • Decide how the duty needs to be executed in another way sooner or later
  • Share your notes together with your different friends for suggestions and to enhance issues going ahead

Experiences and experiments in co-facilitating[edit]

  • Studying Reimagined: Participatory, Peer, World, On-line, by Howard Rheingold
  • Analysis Gate is a community devoted to science and analysis, during which members join, collaborate and uncover scientific publications, jobs and conferences.
  • Creating and Facilitating Peer Assist Teams, by The Group Instrument Field
  • Facilitation Suggestions, by Villanova College
  • Herding Passionate Cats: The Position of Facilitator in a Peer Studying, by Pippa Buchanan
  • Reflective Peer Facilitation: Crafting Collaborative Self-Evaluation, by Dale Vidmar, Southern Oregon College Library
  • Efficient Co-Facilitation, by Everywoman´s Heart, College of Massachussetts


  1. Peer Schooling: Coaching of Trainers Guide; UN Interagency Group on Younger Peoples Well being
  2. Co Facilitating: Benefits & Potential Disadvantages. J. Willam Pfeifer and John E Johnes
  3. A abstract of John Heron’s mannequin on function of facilitators
  4. Carl Rogers, Core Situations and Schooling, Encyclopedia of Casual Schooling
  5. Peer Mediation, Examine Guides and Methods
  6. Co-Facilitation: The Benefits and Challenges, Canadian Union of Public Staff
  7. Bohemia Interactive Group Wiki Pointers
  8. Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1998) Carl Roger’s Serving to System. Journey and Substance, London: Sage
  9. 5 Pillars of Wikipedia, from Wikipedia
  10. Coaching the Pressure, (2002)US Military Subject Guide #FM 7-0 (FM 25-100)

Right here our purpose is to develop the productive “paragogical” facet of peeragogy via a dialogue of the methods, joys, and sorrows of co-working. It enhances the co-facilitation web page.

These questions may apply to our working group(s) right here, and to just about any working group in existence:

  • How do you go the ball?
  • How do you retain the power going?
  • How do you diagnose the place the group goes and make issues “intentional” as an alternative of assumed?

And the way will we do all of this in a means that takes studying under consideration? (The proposed “allowed checklist” comes from Simon Sinek, by means of Fabrizo Terzi and the FTG.)

Co-working because the flip facet of convening[edit]

Linus Torvalds, interviewed by Steven Vaughan-Nichols for a Hewlett-Packard publication, had this to say about software program improvement:


The primary mistake is considering that you would be able to throw issues on the market and ask folks to assist. That is not the way it works. You make it public, and you then assume that you will have to do all of the work, and ask folks to give you options of what you need to do, not what they need to do. Perhaps they will begin serving to finally, however you need to begin off with the belief that you’ll be the one sustaining it and able to do all of the work. The opposite thing–and it is sort of related–that folks appear to get unsuitable is to assume that the code they write is what issues. No, even when you wrote 100% of the code, and even if you’re the perfect programmer on the earth and can by no means want any assist with the mission in any respect, the factor that actually issues is the customers of the code. The code itself is unimportant; the mission is barely as helpful as folks really discover it.

It is very important perceive your customers — and keep in mind that contributors are a particular class of “consumer” with an actual time funding in the way in which the mission works. We usually can not “Tom Sawyer” ourselves into leisure or ease simply because we handle to work collaboratively, or simply as a result of we’ve got discovered folks with some frequent pursuits.

The reality might be someplace in between Torvalds and Twain. Many individuals actively wish to contribute! For instance, on “Wikipedia, the encyclopedia anybody can edit” (as of 2011) as many as 80,000 guests make 5 or extra edits per 30 days. That is attention-grabbing to check with the truth that (as of 2006) “over 50% of all of the edits are executed by simply .7% of the customers… 24 folks…and in reality probably the most energetic 2%, which is 1400 folks, have executed 73.4% of all of the edits.” Related numbers apply to different peer manufacturing communities.

A little bit concept[edit]

In lots of pure programs, issues will not be distributed equally, and it isn’t atypical for e.g. 20% of the inhabitants to manage 80% of the wealth (or, as we noticed, for two% of the customers to do practically 80% of the edits). Many, many programs work like this, so possibly there is a good motive for it.

Let’s give it some thought when it comes to “coordination” as considered by the late Elinor Ostrom. She talked about “native options for native issues”. By definition, such geographically-based coordination requires shut proximity. What does “shut” imply? If we take into consideration homogeneous area, it simply implies that we draw a circle (or sphere) round the place we’re, and the radius of this circle (resp. sphere) is small. An attention-grabbing mathematical reality is that because the dimension grows, the amount of the sphere will get “thinner”, so the radius should enhance to seize the identical d-dimensional quantity when d grows! Primarily based on this, we would guess that the extra dimensions an issue has, the extra assets we might want to remedy it. From one other perspective, the extra various factors influence a given challenge, in some sense, the much less probably there are to be small scale, self-contained, “native issues” within the first place.

If we take into consideration networks as an alternative of homogeneous area, and spot that some nodes within the community have extra connections than others, then we see the identical challenge applies to those nodes: they’ve extra complexity of their quick area than the others. This would possibly recommend that such “central nodes” (e.g. in style movies, in style phrases, in style web sites, in style folks) would, by definition, be much less discriminating when it comes to who/what they couple with. On a sure stage (weak ties) that is most likely true. However on one other stage (robust ties) I believe it should not be true — you possibly can’t actually have it each methods.

Asking for organizations to work on the “native” stage of robust ties when they’re “actually” all about many low-bandwidth weak ties is not more likely to work properly. Google is pleased to serve everybody’s net requests — however they can not have simply anybody strolling in off the road and connecting units their community in Mountain View. (Apart: the 2006 article on Wikipedia quoted above was written by Aaron Swartz, who achieved some notoriety for doing primarily simply that, although in his case, it was MIT’s community, not Google’s.) We would guess that the extra institutionally dedicated somebody is, the much less probably they’re to have the ability to type deep connections with anybody who just isn’t an integral a part of their establishment.

After all, we do not “quit”. We aspire to create programs which have each points, programs the place a “devoted particular person can rise to the highest via dint of effort”, and so on. These programs are properly articulated, virtually like pure languages, that are so expressive and adaptive that “most sentences have by no means been mentioned earlier than”. In different phrases, a well-articulated system does lend itself to “native options to native issues” — however solely as a result of all phrases are NOT created equal.

My brothers learn somewhat bit. Little phrases like ‘If’ and ‘It.’ My father can learn massive phrases, too, Like CONSTANTINOPLE and TIMBUKTU.

Co-working: what’s an establishment?[edit]

We may speak on this part about Coase’s concept of the agency, and Benkler’s concept of “Coase’s Penguin”. We would proceed quoting from Aaron Swartz. However we won’t get so deep into that right here: you possibly can discover it by yourself!

Creator: Joe Corneli isa digital neighborhood which goals to assist make mathematical data extra accessible. I’ve described my involvement with the mission briefly in my “Study Math(s) the Onerous(er) Approach” mission proposal, and at significantly larger depth in my thesis! This text summarizes the primary design concepts. It will get somewhat technical, however don’t fret, there’s not an excessive amount of math

In brief: I lumped the totally different actions that folks may do on into 5 classes (see the desk under). Roughly this desk simply implies that on PlanetMath, folks write articles and hyperlink these articles to different articles, add feedback, ask questions, make corrections, and join issues and options to expository materials. In addition they deploy heuristics for fixing issues — and so they make and be a part of teams.

The 5 classes (Context, Engagement, High quality, Construction, and Heuristic) come from reflecting on the 5 paragogy ideas, and evaluating them with the Martin Nowak’s 5 guidelines for the evolution of cooperation, then clustering the precise actions that folks can do on PlanetMath (in addition to some new deliberate actions) into these classes. I additionally drew inspiration from the sample and heuristic “language” we developed within the peeragogy mission. I began by clustering our sample language diagram into 5 segments, like this:

The “key” that reveals how issues match collectively is as follows:

  • Context ~ Altering context as a decentered heart. ~ Kin choice
  • Engagement ~ Meta-learning as a font of data. ~ Direct reciprocity
  • High quality ~ Friends present suggestions that wouldn’t be there in any other case. ~ Oblique reciprocity
  • Construction ~ Studying is distributed and nonlinear. ~ Spatial choice
  • Heuristic ~ Understand the dream when you can, then get up! ~ Group choice

The analogies will not be good, and are supposed to assist encourage, quite than to constrain, ideas on the training/platform design. It is necessary to keep in mind that Nowak’s formalism is supposed to be normal sufficient to explain all totally different sorts of collaboration —

In a “kin choice” regime, we’re working in a “generational” modality; we’re what’s “associated”, and this helps to outline that which is “unrelated” — the opposite.

On PlanetMath, an important senses of “relatedness” apply to parts of the topic area. Matters which might be linked to 1 one other within the encyclopedia are associated. These hyperlinks can both be implicit time period references (that are noticed by PlanetMath’s autolinker), or extra specific connections added by authors, readers, or editors. Such hyperlinks can construct an implicit context for a “newcomer” who approaches a given subject.

In a “direct reciprocity” regime, we “studying about ourselves” in apply, often in a social context.

One of many key legacy options of PlanetMath is that each object within the system is “discussable”. You’ll be able to ask a query about an encyclopedia article, for instance, and this can go into a standard pool of questions. One of many driving concepts behind the location’s (re)design is that each query ought to assist us enhance the location, for instance, by declaring a spot the place the unique expository article may very well be improved. After all, on the most elementary stage, we hope that the questions obtain good one-off solutions (offering a profit to the preliminary question-asker). Even the simplest query is a “constructively important” query. On the extent of website semantics, it will be good to maintain observe of which questions have been answered, and which haven’t. Questions will be “mutated” into corrections, requests, or mathematical issues to resolve.

In an “oblique reciprocity” regime, we’re constructing one thing that could be helpful afterward.

One other necessary legacy characteristic of PlanetMath is that, in contrast to Wikipedia, articles will not be usually open to the general public to edit (although some are). Reasonably, the everyday strategy of “crowdsourcing” takes place via a corrections mechanism. From an analytical perspective, we would anticipate corrections to be one of many key methods during which website authors be taught from each other. In a way, the chance to get corrections or options identified later may be one of many greatest incentives for writing an article within the first place! Providing a correction to another person is, in fact, a solution to level out one’s personal knowledgability (as such, a type of flip-side of asking questions). Sure behaviors might help one develop repute (although PlanetMath doesn’t mannequin this very explicitly)… and maybe even extra importantly, a high-quality useful resource “emerges” from such one-to-one interactions.

In a “spatial choice” regime, we’re once more defining an “inside” and “outdoors”, and searching for methods during which the constructions that we’ve got recognized can match collectively.

One of many options that the legacy model of PlanetMath lacked was any type of help for “drawback fixing conduct” — which, in arithmetic, is definitely a fairly important factor. Reasonably, the location was arrange as a “reference” software for individuals who solved issues elsewhere. By transferring help for issues, options, and evaluations onto the PlanetMath website itself, we anticipate not solely to open the “market” as much as new sorts of learners (i.e. folks working at a extra fundamental stage than encyclopedia authoring OR folks working at a reasonably superior stage who’re extra eager about purposes than in concept), but in addition to get vital enhancements to the core data useful resource itself (the encyclopedia). It is because “an article with out an connected drawback” just isn’t a really sensible article from a studying or software standpoint. Equally, “an issue and not using a answer” is missing one thing, as is “an answer and not using a evaluate”. Constructing help for this, and help for folks to construction/stage issues with drawback units ought to assist make the location a way more virtually helpful studying software.

In a “group choice” regime, we’re constructing “units” of actions and patterns (milestones, roles) which may then act as “selectors” for conduct. (This is the reason I’ve mixed it with the catch-all “heuristic” class.)

One other historic weak level of the legacy website was help for “groups.” Thus, for instance, one effort to enhance PlanetMath’s protection of matters in Actual Evaluation foundered – as a result of there was no solution to collect a important mass to this mission. There are social, technical, and data points to this drawback. Co-working requires folks to have the ability to be a part of teams, and it requires the teams to have the ability to construction their workflow. In some sense that is just like a person’s work being structured by means of heuristics. An individual’s selection to use this technique as an alternative of that one, or to hitch this group as an alternative of that one, is ultimately a considerably related selection.

These notes have proven how the paragogical ideas, supplimented with very normal theories of collaboration, and a few sensible observations as examined within the Peeragogy Handbook, might help design an area for studying, which is itself a “studying area” within the sense of data constructing. Though the case examine has centered on arithmetic studying, related reflections would apply to designing different kinds of studying areas (e.g. to the continued improvement of the Peeragogy mission itself!).

Authors: Joe Corneli and David Preston

This text might be about each evaluation in peer studying and an train in evaluation, as we are going to attempt to put our technique for evaluation into apply by evaluating the Peeragogy Handbook itself.

Enthusiastic about “contribution”[edit]

It’s intuitive to say: “studying is adaptation.” What else wouldn’t it be?

Additional, since adaptation occurs not simply on the person stage, but in addition on the socio-cultural stage — anthropologists use the phrase “adaptive technique” as a synonym for “tradition” — we are able to say that contributions to social adaptation are “paragogical.”

Adapting methods for studying evaluation to the peer-learning context[edit]

In “Efficient Grading: A Instrument for Studying and Evaluation,” Barbara E. Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson have outlined an method to grading. They tackle three questions:

  1. Who must know, and why?
  2. Which information are collected?
  3. How does the evaluation physique analyze information and current findings?

The authors recommend that establishments, departments, and evaluation committees ought to start with these easy questions and work from them in the direction of something extra complicated. These easy questions present a solution to perceive – and assess – any technique for evaluation! For instance, take into account “formative evaluation:

“…which entails continually monitoring scholar understanding via a mix of formal and casual measures. Academics ask looking questions, hear over the shoulders of scholars working collectively on an issue, assist college students assess their very own work, and thoroughly uncover college students’ considering [and] react to what they be taught by adjusting their educating, thereby main college students to larger understanding.” (Quote from the web site for the guide “New Frontiers in Formative Evaluation”.)

On this context, our solutions to the questions above could be:

  1. Academics have to find out about the way in which college students are fascinated about their work, to allow them to ship higher educating.
  2. Academics collect a number of particulars on studying actions by “listening over the shoulders” of scholars.
  3. Academics apply (hopefully well-informed) evaluation strategies that come from their coaching or expertise — and they don’t essentially current their assessments to college students straight, however quite, feed it again within the type of improved educating.

That is very a lot a “instructor is aware of finest” mannequin! With the intention to do one thing like formative evaluation amongst friends, we must make fairly a number of changes.

  1. No less than a few of the mission individuals must know the way individuals are fascinated about their work. We would not be capable to “ship higher educating,” however maybe we may work collectively to problem-solve when difficulties come up.
  2. It might be most handy for every participant to tackle a share of the work, e.g. by sustaining a “studying journal” (which may very well be shared with different individuals). This imposes a sure overhead, however as we remarked elsewhere, “meta-learning is a font of data”! Outdoors of self-reflection, particulars about others’ studying can generally be abstracted from their contributions to the mission (“studying analytics” is an entire subject unto itself).
  3. If a participant in a “studying mission” is bored, annoyed, feeling closed-minded, or for no matter different motive “not studying”, then there’s undoubtedly a query. However for whom? For the one who is not studying? For the collective as an entire? We could not must ponder this conundrum for lengthy: if we return to the concept that “studying is adaptation”, somebody who just isn’t studying in a given context will probably depart, and discover one other context the place they’ll be taught extra.

That is however one instance of an evaluation technique: along with “formative evaluation”, “diagnostic” and “summative” methods are additionally fairly in style in mainstream schooling. The principle objective of this part has been to point out that when the acquainted roles from formal schooling devolve “to the folks”, the way in which evaluation seems can change quite a bit. Within the following part, we provide and start to implement an evaluation technique for evaluating the peeragogy mission as an entire.

Case examine in peeragogical analysis: the Peeragogy mission itself[edit]

We will consider this mission partly when it comes to its most important “deliverable,” the Peeragogy Handbook (which you at the moment are studying). Specifically, we are able to ask: Is that this handbook helpful for its meant viewers? The “meant viewers” may doubtlessly embrace anybody who’s taking part in a peer studying mission, or who is considering beginning one. We will additionally consider the training expertise that the co-creators of this handbook have had. Has engaged on this guide been a helpful expertise for these concerned? These are two very totally different questions, with two totally different targets for evaluation — although the guide’s co-creators are additionally a part of the “meant viewers”. Certainly, we would begin by asking “has engaged on this guide been helpful for us?”

For me (Joe) personally, it has been helpful:

to see some extra summary, conceptual, and theoretical concepts (paragogy.web) prolonged into sensible recommendation (which I am positive I can personally use), with references to literature I’d not have give you in library or web searches, and with a bunch of concepts and insights that I would not have give you alone. I undoubtedly intend to make use of this handbook additional in my work.

It is true; I do see myself as one of many extra concerned individuals thus far, which stands to motive since I am really paid to analysis peer studying, and this mission is (in my view) one of the vital cutting-edge locations to speak about that subject! If “you get out of it what you set into it” is true, then, once more, as a significant contributor, I believe I “deserve” quite a bit. And I am definitely not the one one: fairly numerous person-hours have been poured into this mission by fairly a lot of volunteers. This could say one thing!

Nonetheless, one doesn’t must be a “handbook contributor” in any respect to get worth from the mission: if it had been in any other case, we would as properly simply do away with the guide after writing it. Truly, our thought is that this work will certainly have “worth” for downstream customers, and our selection of authorized phrases across the guide displays that concept. Anybody downstream is free to make use of the contents of this guide for any objective in any respect. For all we all know, there might be future customers who will add way more to the examine and apply of paragogy/peeragogy than any of us have to date. This might occur by placing the concepts to the check, feeding again info on the outcomes to the mission (please do! – the final word evaluation of the Peeragogy Handbook might be based mostly on what folks really do with it): maybe additional growing the guide, growing further case research or recipes, and so forth.

In truth, questions on “usefulness” are what we purpose to review in our “alpha testing” part (which is starting now!).


We will estimate particular person studying by inspecting the true issues solved by the person. Generally these are solved in collaboration with others. If somebody solely consumes info, they might be “studying”, however there isn’t any means for us to measure that. Then again, in the event that they solely remedy “textbook issues”, once more, they could be studying and gaining instinct (which is sweet), however it’s nonetheless not 100% clear that they’re really studying something “helpful” till they begin fixing issues that they actually care about! So, to evaluate studying, we don’t simply measure “contribution” (when it comes to amount of posts or what have you ever) however as an alternative we measure “contribution to fixing actual issues”. Generally that occurs very slowly, with a number of apply alongside the way in which. Moreover, at any given cut-off date, a few of the “issues” are literally fairly enjoyable and are “solved” by taking part in! Certainly (as folks like Piaget and Vygotsky acknowledged), if we’re to know actual specialists on studying, we should always speak with children, since they be taught tons and tons of issues.

Really useful studying[edit]

  • Chris Morgan, Meg O’Reilly, Assessing Open and distance learners (1999), Open College
  • Jan Philipp Schmidt, Christine Geith, Stian Håklev, and Joel Thierstein, Peer-To-Peer Recognition of Studying in Open Schooling
  • L.S. Vygotsky: Thoughts in Society: Growth of Larger Psychological Processes
  • Reijo Miettinen and Jaakko Virkkunen, Epistemic Objects, Artifacts and Organizational Change, Group, Might 2005 ,12: 437-456.

Complement: An outline of evaluation matters[edit]

  • Diagnostic, formative and summative analysis
  • Competency-based studying
  • Experiential studying


  • particular person
  • group/workforce
  • class
  • course
  • program
  • group


  • diagnostic
  • formative
  • summative

Suggestions supply[edit]

  • peer
  • pedadogical authority
  • content material knowledgeable
  • group
  • public


  • Peer evaluation
  • Self-assessment
  • Norm-referenced testing
  • Criterion-referenced testing
  • Info-referenced testing
  • Writing
  • Transmedia/e-portfolios

Different issues[edit]

  • Suitability to job
  • Suitability to learner’s desired/anticipated outcomes (e.g., “If I wish to grasp a ability, I want extra knowledgeable/important/constructive suggestions than somebody clicking a ‘like’ button.”)
  • Capital: time, cash, power, ROI
  • Future documentary utilization
  • skilled tips

Additional studying[edit]


The metrics for studying in firms are enterprise metrics based mostly on monetary information. Managers wish to know: “Has the training expertise enhanced the employees’ productiveness?”

Observe the cash[edit]

When folks ask in regards to the ROI of casual studying, ask them how they measure the ROI of formal studying. Take a look at scores, grades, self-evaluations, attendance, and certifications show nothing. The ROI of any type of studying is the worth of adjustments in conduct divided by the price of inducing the change. Just like the tree falling over within the forest with nobody to listen to it, if there’s no change in conduct over the lengthy haul, no studying befell. ROI is within the thoughts of the beholder, on this case, the sponsor of the training who’s going to resolve whether or not or to not proceed investing. As a result of the determine entails judgment, it’s by no means going to be correct to the primary decimal place. Happily, it doesn’t must be. Ballpark numbers are strong sufficient for making choices.

Assessing Office Studying from Jay Cross on Vimeo.

The method begins earlier than the funding is made. What diploma of change will the sponsor settle for as worthy of reinvestment? How are we going to measure that? What’s an satisfactory stage of change? What’s so low we’ll must undertake a unique method? How a lot of the change can we attribute to studying? It’s essential to achieve settlement on this stuff beforehand. Monday morning quarterbacking just isn’t credible. It’s loopy to evaluate studying instantly after it happens. You’ll be able to see if persons are collaborating or in the event that they’re complaining about getting misplaced, however you can’t assess what sticks till the forgetting curve has ravaged the learners’ recollections for a number of months. With out reinforcement, folks overlook most of what they be taught briefly order. It’s beguiling to attempt to correlate the influence of studying with current monetary metrics like elevated revenues or higher customer support scores. Finished by itself, this method hardly ever works as a result of studying is however one in every of many components that affect outcomes. Was at present’s success because of studying or the advert marketing campaign or weak competitors or the gross sales contest or one thing else? The way in which to evaluate how folks be taught is to ask them. How did you determine how to do that? Who did you be taught this from? How did that change your conduct? How can we make it higher? Too time consuming? Not when you interview a consultant pattern. For instance, interviewing lower than 100 folks out of 2000 yields a solution inside 10% nineteen instances out of twenty, a better confidence stage than most estimates in enterprise. Interviewing 150 folks offers you the correct estimate 99% of the time.

Authors: The Peeragogy Workforce

Though a grounding in studying concept helps inform peer studying initiatives, Peeragogy, at its core, involves life in utilized apply. For a profitable consequence, check out these finest practices, patterns, and use instances (additionally known as case research or examples). Patterns and use instances that co-facilitators and individuals establish because the mission unfolds can serve the following peeragogical enterprise as properly.

What’s a sample?[edit]

A sample is something that has a repeated impact. Within the context of peeragogy, the apply is to repeat processes and interactions that advance the training mission. Frequent occurrences that aren’t fascinating are known as anti-patterns!

Christopher Alexander: “Every sample describes an issue which happens time and again in the environment, after which describes the core of the answer to that drawback, in a means that you should use this answer one million instances over, with out ever doing it the identical means twice.” [1]

Patterns present a framework that may be utilized to related points however could also be metaphorically solved in several methods, generally in actual world or nose to nose occasions and different instances in digital area / purposes.

Christopher Alexander: “Can we do higher? Does all this speak assist to make higher buildings? […] What’s the Chartres of programming? What job is at a excessive sufficient stage to encourage folks writing applications, to achieve for the celebrities?” [2]

Be aware: the notion of the analog (akin to a plaza) may turn into a digital metaphor for a bunch chat or Google+ Hangout — a bunch assembly area / agora. Certainly the working title for Google Communities was “piazza!”

Patterns of peeragogy[edit]

Right here is our index of the patterns we have discovered to date (described in additional element after the bounce):

  • Wrapper – Entrance finish look to individuals. Consolidate and summarize.
  • Discerning a sample – Discovered a sample? Give it a title and instance.
  • Polling for concepts – Invite brainstorming, gathering concepts, questions, and options.
  • Making a information – Overviews expose the lay of the land. Accumulating content material and tales.
  • Newcomer – Create a information for “newbie’s thoughts” and assist keep away from have to introduce new members every “assembly.”
  • Roadmap – Plans for future work, course in the direction of a aim, dynamic
  • Roles – Specialize and blend it up. Play to individuals strengths and abilities.
  • Undertaking focus – Lightbulb second: Most particular initiatives contain studying!
  • Carrying capability – Know your limits, discover methods to get different folks concerned.
  • Heartbeat – The “heartbeat” of the group retains power flowing.
  • Moderation – When leaders step again, dynamics can enhance; moderator serves as champion and editor.
  • Use or make? – Repurposing, tinkering, or creating from scratch?
  • Reiterate – Periodically evaluate and revise above actions as wanted

Anti-patterns for Peeragogy[edit]

And a few “anti-patterns” (issues to keep away from):

What’s a use case?[edit]

A use case describes somebody (or one thing) who makes use of a given system or software to attain a aim. A use case consists of a title, which serves as a quick abstract; a most important actor, and successful state of affairs. Extra options will be added, akin to alternate interactions or decisions that result in a variation on the end result.

A use case is a state of affairs which employs a number of persona (private profile & function) in a state of affairs and the way she or her group works on a mission/drawback and their processes to come back to an answer or options. Some actions should not have a single answer, and are sometimes called “Depraved Issues.” The recorded processes will be normalized to be come standardized into use instances that may be employed actually or modified to suit the context of the exercise at hand.

Use instances for Peeragogy[edit]

We additionally current a wide range of hypothetical and not-so-hypothetical use instances:

Sample language[edit]

Mix patterns and use instances and also you begin to establish a sample language that can be utilized instantly, and in future initiatives. The following part on drawback fixing goes into extra element, however we’ll preview the thought right here with the next diagram:

The following main sections of this guide — Convene, Arrange, Cooperate and Assess — symbolize massive clusters of patterns which might be more likely to come up repeatedly in numerous initiatives (do you see the analogy with the 4 main branches of the diagram above?). You’re in fact free to invent your personal patterns. Every mission will are inclined to have it is personal design, and it is personal distinctive means issues play out in apply. Right here, we current these small however highly effective “starter patterns”.

Christopher Alexander: These concepts—patterns—are hardly greater than glimpses of a a lot deeper stage of construction, and is in the end inside this deeper stage of construction, that the origin of life happens.


The above use instances and patterns make the “story” summary – however how about some concrete examples of peeragogy in motion? Think about:

  •, “an open supply neighborhood aiming to assist newcomers discover their means into free software program initiatives.”
  • The Free Know-how Guild is a youthful mission with aspirations related in some methods to these of OpenHatch, however on this case, oriented not simply to pairing newcomers with mentors, however pairing shoppers with service suppliers. “The concept is that we as a bunch will do helpful initiatives for our members or exterior events, and on-the-job we mentor and be taught and get higher.” (Since this can be a new mission, the mission constructing part is itself a nacent instance of paragogy.)
  • Many extra examples on our examples web page!


  1. Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, Sara, and Silverstein, Murray, A Sample Language: Cities, Buildings, and, Development, New York: Oxford College Press, 1977.
  2. Gabriel, Richard P. Patterns of Software program, New York: Oxford College Press, 1996. (Features a ahead by Christopher Alexander.)

Additional readings on patterns[edit]

  1. The Timeless Approach of Constructing, by Christopher Alexander.
  2. Article, “Manifesto 1991” by Christopher Alexander, Progressive Structure, July 1991, pp. 108–112, offers a quick abstract of Alexander’s concepts within the type of a critique of mainstream structure. Most of the similar kinds of important factors would carry over to mainstream schooling. Some highlights are excerpted right here.
  3. Wikipatterns
  4. The Origins of Sample Idea, the Way forward for the Idea, And The Era of a Residing World, Christopher Alexander’s speak on the 1996 ACM Convention on Object-Oriented Applications, Methods, Languages and Functions (OOPSLA)

Different associated work[edit]

  1. Cluetrain Manifesto (the First version is obtainable free of charge)
  2. New Guidelines for the New Financial system(you possibly can alsoread the guide on-line)

Ten doubtlessly helpful issues to do whenever you’re fixing an issue are described by Synthetic Intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky in a collection of memos for the One Laptop computer Per Youngster mission. We will sum them up visually with the next diagram:

We will additionally see some attention-grabbing relationships to the peeragogy patterns we recognized earlier. The connections are first described with an image right here, after which in additional element with textual content under. Among the nodes on this diagram are clickable, and clicking will take you to the web page describing the related sample:

To elaborate in phrases:

  • Simplify issues for Newcomers. In apply, which means we do not anticipate a newcomer to enter at full velocity.
  • Use a Roadmapto information us from one part to a different, whereas the mission’s central Heartbeat helps us attend to the central focus.
  • Announce adjustments via a Wrapper who describes the brand new standing or course of the mission. For the Peeragogy mission, that always meant summing up the excessive factors that we noticed over a given time period.
  • Assemble a Sample Languagefor the mission by first Discerning Patterns, and once we’ve seen how the patterns relate to one another (as within the diagram above), we are able to begin to construct a map just like the one above, for subsequent use in problem-solving and design.
  • We divide work up not solely horizontally amongst totally different Roles, but in addition temporally by utilizing the Roadmap. Somebody who’s transferring forward with the Roadmap is more likely to be working at the vanguard.
  • Once we discover an analogy, we’re principally Making a Information of some type. This can be utilized as a type of “exploration,” as we have a look at how one type of engagement could or could not map onto different types of engagement.
  • Once we ask for assist, we could avail ourselves of some Moderation service that may resolve the way to cope with our request. One easy solution to ask for assistance is Polling for Concepts. Clearly as soon as we begin to get assist, we’re working in a regime of “collaborative effort”.
  • If the reply, you then could possibly reuse it (which is the fundamental concept described in Praxis vs Poesis, although the title is somewhat bit obscure). Somebody who is aware of the reply and who is sweet at self-explanation can also have a good suggestion about the way to get from the present state to the aim state; alternatively, this can be damaged down into steps in some sub-Roadmap, and transferring from step to step would then illustrate “progressive drawback fixing”.
  • It is very important give it a relaxation in order to not over-exhaust oneself, busting one’s personal Carrying Capability, or, alternatively, overwhelming the group.
  • It appears that evidently one of many issues that specialists do is Discerning a Sample. This permits them to simplify their processing.
  • Lastly, once more, if we all know why it’s arduous, then we could possibly Create a Information that may assist get round, or a minimum of higher deal with, the issue.


  • The Society of Thoughts is a guide by Marvin Minsky that talks about how a thoughts will be made up of many alternative “businesses” that work collectively. A comparatively latest evaluate by Push Singh is obtainable on-line, and accommodates a succinct overview of the important thing elements of the extra complicated drawback fixing or “considering” structure described in Minsky’s guide.
  • Peer Supported Drawback Fixing and Mathematical Data is a forthcoming Ph. D. thesis by peeragogy co-author Joseph Corneli.
  • Our Fashion Information accommodates some tips to make use of when engaged on “issues of exposition”

With out somebody or one thing performing because the “heartbeat” for the group, power could dissipate. Within the “Collaborative Lesson Planning” course led by Charlie Danoff at P2PU (which I joined twice, and the place we first talked via the concepts about paragogy), Charlie wrote particular person emails to individuals who had been signed up for the course and who had disappeared, or lurked however did not take part. This stored a few of us (together with me!) making optimistic contributions. – Joe Corneli

“If overstimulation on the sensory stage will increase the distortion with which we understand actuality, cognitive overstimulation interferes with our skill to ‘assume.’ ” –’Future Shock, by Alvin Toffler

At instances, a facilitator or participant within the peer-learning enterprise could really feel she or he is over-contributing — or, maybe extra probably, that others are under-contributing — or that another person is railroading an concept or dominating the dialogue. If this occurs, take a step again and observe the dynamics of involvement. Ask questions and let others reply. Particularly when you begin to really feel the signs of burnout, it is necessary that you just discover the extent of engagement that lets you take part at a stage that’s possible for sustaining progress towards the mission’s aim. Lead by instance – however be sure that it is someplace you, and others, really wish to go! This may very well be time to revisit the group’s roadmap and see when you can work out and make clear to others what concrete aim you are working in the direction of. Bear in mind that you would be able to additionally change the “panorama” by making it simpler for different folks to become involved — for instance, by explaining what you are making an attempt to do in a transparent method. Look ahead to alternatives to step again, watch, hear. Attempt to be conscious of phases when energetic or quiet involvement could be extra useful to the person and the group. It is also useful to let anybody who has taken on a facilitation function know when you’re stepping again quickly. Then, when the time is true, step again in and get to work!

That means-carrying instruments, like handbooks or maps, might help folks use an concept. Specifically, when the thought or system is barely “newly found”, the related meanings will not be properly understood (certainly they could not have been created). In such a case, the method of making the information can go hand-in-hand with determining how the system works. Thus, strategies of data cartography and which means making are helpful for would-be information creators. Even so, it’s price noting that “the map just isn’t the territory,” and map-making is just one aspect of shared human exercise. Collaboratively refining a sample is itself an instance of “Making a Information” – that’s, a sample description will be considered a “micro-map” of a particular exercise.

Discerning patterns helps us construct our vocabulary or repertoire for peer-learning initiatives.

[W]e noticed that language use is usually what we’ve got to go on, from an analytical perspective. Typically, if we aren’t beginning with language, we arrive at it quickly sufficient. Language turns into one thing to concentrate to, in a lot the identical means during which Buddhist practitioners have for hundreds of years hung out watching their breath. — From “Paragogical Praxis” by Joe Corneli

The problem of discerning a peeragogical sample revolves round a meta-awareness of language. For instance, in constructing a peer studying profile, a participant would possibly establish an curiosity akin to natural gardening. We discover this can be a sample when it repeats; when natural gardening is regularly listed amongst pursuits listed by individuals of their introductions. The traditional instance of a sample is “a spot to attend” a sort of area discovered in lots of architectural and concrete design initiatives. As soon as a sample is detected, give it a title and write down how the sample works in a peer studying context. What does this sample say in regards to the self-selection strategy of the group? With out leaping to conclusions, take into account that an curiosity in natural gardening, for instance, would possibly point out the individuals are oriented to cooperation, private well being, or environmental activism (emphasis on would possibly!).

“Why is a fishbowl extra productive than debate? The small group conversations within the fishbowl are inclined to de-personalize the difficulty and cut back the stress stage, making folks’s statements extra cogent. Since persons are speaking with their fellow partisans, they get much less caught up in wasteful adversarial video games.” – the Co-Intelligence Institute

Participation in on-line boards tends to observe a “energy regulation,” with unequal engagement. One treatment for that is merely for probably the most energetic individuals to step again, and reasonable how a lot they converse (see Carrying Capability). OWS makes use of an analogous approach of their “progressive stack.”

Except there’s a new particular person to speak to, lots of the “schooling stuff” we do may develop stale. Most of the patterns and use instances for peeragogy assume that there might be an viewers or a brand new technology of learners – therefore the drive to create a information. Be aware that the newcomer and the wrapper may go collectively to make the mission accessible. Even within the absence of precise newcomers, we’re typically requested to try to have a look at issues with a “newbie’s thoughts.”

Joe Corneli’s instance evoked my very own expertise energing the Peeragogy neighborhood. As a Peeragogy newcomer, I used to be kindly welcomed and mentored by Joe, Howard, Fabrizio, and others. I requested naiive questions and was met with affected person solutions, guiding questions, and useful resource hyperlinks. Concurrently, I bootstrapped myself right into a place to contribute to the workflow by enhancing the reside manuscript for consistency, fashion, and continuity. The concrete act of enhancing and fact-checking this comparatively (to me) unfamiliar subject in bodily isolation quickly raised my understanding of the sphere. I additionally returned to the Social Media Classroom boards to observe up on early gives of enhancing assist from lately uninvolved individuals, ensuing within the rekindled curiosity of a number of (if not an amazing military) new editors. – Charlotte Pierce (written whereas enhancing this web page).


Sensible advicefor receiving newcomers in Peeragogy. – by Regis Barondeau

I take advantage of the thought of a sample language as a shorthand for what Christopher Alexander talks about in his keynote tackle for the IEEE in 1996.

In brief, as soon as we’ve got give you sufficient patterns (together with the sample of a sample language that I discussing right here, and its generalizations per Christopher Alexander), then we might be higher capable of do each the socio-technical design work related to planning pæragogical experiences, and, fairly probably, benefit from the “precise work” extra too.

On this quote from the linked article, C. A. talks about pc programming, however I believe the identical may go for another type of design-and-implementation work:

It’s a view of programming because the pure genetic infrastructure of a dwelling world which you/we’re able to creating, managing, making out there, and which may then have the end result {that a} dwelling construction in our cities, homes, work locations, cities, turns into an attainable factor. That might be outstanding. It will flip the world round, and make dwelling construction the norm as soon as once more, all through society, and make the world price dwelling in once more.That is a unprecedented imaginative and prescient of the long run, during which computer systems play a elementary function in making the world – and above all of the constructed construction of the world – alive, humane, ecologically profound, and with a deep dwelling construction.

after which Howard mentioned”“Firstly, till everyone knows the ropes properly sufficient to grasp when to create a brand new dialogue discussion board subject and when so as to add to an current one, let’s speak on this subject thread about what else we wish to focus on and I’ll begin new subject threads when crucial.”
Polling for Concepts can occur at many junctures in a peer studying expertise, e.g. we may ballot for concepts about “who would we like to hitch our group?”, and “what could be good assets for us to make use of?”

“Praxis, a noble exercise, is at all times one in every of use, as distinct from poesis which designates fabrication. Solely the previous, which performs and acts, however doesn’t produce, is noble.” [1] (p. 101)

19th century collage playing cards, care of Nick Haus.

There’s a pressure between “making stuff” (poesis) and “utilizing stuff” (praxis). Peer manufacturing, because the identify signifies, is about “making stuff.” And making stuff will be enjoyable. However we must also ask ourselves, how a lot new stuff do we actually want? There’s not a tough and quick reply to that. We must also take into account how a lot “studying” is de facto “remix” — that’s, re-use and recycling of different folks’s concepts and strategies.

Understanding and negotiating the stress between reuse and creativity is the important thing to the artwork of remix or “paragogical praxis”!


  1. Baudrillard, J. (1975). The mirror of manufacturing. Telos Press

It is rather helpful to have an up-to-date public roadmap for the mission, someplace the place it may be mentioned and maintained. This helps newcomers see the place they’ll bounce in. It additionally provides a way of the accomplishments thus far, and any main challenges that lie forward. Bear in mind, the Roadmap exists as an artifact with which to share present, however by no means full, understanding of the area. By no means cease studying!


Within the Peeragogy mission, as soon as the guide’s define grew to become pretty mature, we may use it as a roadmap, by marking the sections which might be “completed” (a minimum of in draft), marking the sections the place enhancing is at the moment happening, and marking the stubs (potential beginning factors for future contributors). After this define matured into an actual desk of contents, we began to look in different instructions for methods to construct on our successes thus far, and began engaged on a roadmap for additional improvement of the web site and peeragogy mission as an entire.

And likewise[edit]

Be aware {that a} shared roadmap is similar to a Private Studying Plan, or “paragogical profile”. We have made some examples of those as we bought began engaged on the Free Know-how Guild.

There’s a sure roadmappiness to “presentation of self”, and you may be taught to make use of this properly. As an illustration, when introducing your self and your work to different folks, you possibly can give attention to highlights like these:

  • “What’s the message behind what you are doing?”
  • “How do you present a mannequin others can observe or enhance upon?”
  • “How can others get straight concerned together with your mission?”

This will appear to be an apparent one, however academic interactions are inclined to have a lot of totally different roles related to them. Think about that the whole lot may bifurcate from the “autodidact”:
1. Autodidact 2. Tutor-Tutee 3. Tutor-Tutee-Dad or mum 5. Tutor-Tutee #1-Tutee #2-Dad or mum-Principal and so on., till we’ve got bursars, librarians, technicians, janitors, editors of peer reviewed analysis journals, authorities coverage makers, spin-off industrial ventures and partnerships, and so on., all concerned in Schooling. Even the autodidact could assume totally different roles at totally different deadlines – generally making a library run, generally setting up a mannequin, generally checking a proof. The decomposition of “studying” into totally different phases or polarities may very well be an infinite theoretical job. For the second, we simply word that roles are sometimes current “by default” at the beginning of a studying course of, and that they could change as the method develops.

Early on, energetic peeragogue Charlie Danoff steered that somebody tackle the “wrapper function” – do a weekly pre/submit wrap, in order that new customers would know the standing the mission is at any given cut-off date. The mission wiki most important web page additionally serves as a “wrapper”, and in Peeragogy, we verify it sometimes to be sure that it precisely represents the fundamental info in regards to the mission. Be aware that the “wrapper function” is just like the integrative perform that’s wanted for commons-based peer manufacturing to work (in accordance with the idea proposed by Yochai Benkler, it is important to have each 1) the flexibility to contribute small items; 2) some “integrative perform” that stitches these items collectively. In Peeragogy, the Weekly Roundup” by Christopher Tillman Neal served to have interaction and re-engage members. Peeragogues started to keen watched for the weekly experiences to see if our groups or our names had been talked about. When there was a vacation or break, Chris would announce the hiatus, to maintain the circulate going.

Félix Guattari: Think about a fenced subject during which there are horses carrying adjustable blinkers, and let’s say that the “coefficient of transversality” might be exactly the adjustment of the blinkers. If the horses are fully blind, a sure sort of traumatic encounter might be produced. As quickly because the blinkers are opened, one can think about that the horses will transfer about in a extra harmonious means. (Quoted by Andrew Murphy, himself quoting Gary Genosko)

From a design standpoint: we should always take heed to interfaces which might be “too loud”, and take into consideration how that’s compensated for by isolation of assorted kinds. With a too-narrow focus, folks find yourself bumping into one another uncomfortably. Nonetheless, with an over-wide focus, issues are chaotic in different methods (see Co-Studying: Messy with Lurkers), motivating a narrowing of focus. An effort that isolates itself won’t have the event to attract on different assets.

This generally goes by the identify Not Invented Right here. However focus is de facto solely an issue when it turns into overfocus, leading to uncomfortable bumps. When that occurs, it looks like motive to attempt to make clear the way to have interaction in a extra fruitful method. Studying the way to handle the uncertainty that comes with experimentation is a part of what makes the postmodern group tick! (See additionally: Participatory Design vs Navel Gazing.)


Whereas the best platform would (magically) include options pre-built, a extra practical method acknowledges that drawback fixing at all times takes time and power. The issue fixing method and related “studying orientation” can even rely on the duty and assets at hand. […] Arguably, if we “knew”, 100%, the way to do peeragogy, then we might not stand to be taught very a lot by scripting this handbook. Difficulties and tensions could be resolved “prematurely” (see earlier feedback about “magical” applied sciences for peer manufacturing).

Magical Pondering is the thief of course of[edit]

Magical considering of the type described above robs a context of its “course of” (Nishida would possibly say, its “movement”). It appears potential that the extra construction we’ve got “prematurely”, and the extra we are able to fall again on “conventional” modes of doing issues, the much less we stand to be taught. I quote at size:

Optimization of decision-making processes confers an necessary benefit in response to a continually altering setting. The power to pick out the suitable actions on the premise of their penalties and on our wants on the time of the choice permits us to reply in an environment friendly solution to altering conditions. Nonetheless, the continual management and a focus that this course of calls for can lead to an pointless expenditure of assets and will be inefficient in lots of conditions. As an illustration, when conduct is repeated commonly for intensive intervals with out main adjustments in consequence worth or contingency, or underneath unsure conditions the place we can not manipulate the chance of acquiring an consequence, normal guidelines and habits will be advantageous. Thus, the extra speedy shift to habits after continual stress may very well be a coping mechanism to enhance efficiency of well-trained behaviors, whereas growing the bioavailability to amass and course of new info, which appears important for adaptation to complicated environments. Nonetheless, when targets must be re-updated with the intention to take advantage of applicable selection, the shortcoming of pressured topics to shift from routine methods to goal-directed conduct may be extremely detrimental. Such impairment may be of relevance to grasp the excessive comorbidity between stress-related issues and addictive conduct or compulsivity, however definitely has a broader influence spanning actions from on a regular basis life choices to economics.” — Science Journal

This additionally has attention-grabbing implications in relation to “detecting studying” (see “researching peeragogy”). How do feelings, stress, studying, behavior, and adaptation relate?

Gigi Johnson: (1) Co-learning is Messy. It wants time, persistence, confusion, re-forming, re-norming, re-storming, and so on. Issues go awry and a part of norms must be the way to realign. (2) Co-learning is a VERY totally different expertise from conventional teacher-led studying when it comes to time and completion. It’s irritating, so many individuals will lurk or simply step out and in, the latter of which may be very totally different from what is appropriate in traditonal studying. On-line studying applications are painted with the comb now of an “unacceptable” 50% common non-completion price. Stanford’s MOOC AI class, which began out with +100,000 folks, had 12% end. If solely 12% or 50% of my conventional class completed, I would have a tough time getting subsequent quarter’s lessons authorised!

The second level is just like the sooner Anti-pattern “Misunderstanding Energy (Legal guidelines)”. Individuals have to hitch with the intention to strive, and when becoming a member of is low-cost, and completion low-benefit, it isn’t shocking that many individuals will “dissipate” because the course progresses. The “messiness” of co-learning is attention-grabbing as a result of it factors to a type of “inner dissipation”, as contributors carry their a number of totally different backgrounds, pursuits, and communication kinds to bear. In Tomlinson et al., we noticed:

Extra authors means extra content material, but in addition extra phrases thrown away. Most of the phrases written by authors had been deleted throughout the ongoing enhancing course of. The sheer mass of deleted phrases would possibly increase the query of whether or not authoring a paper in such a massively distributed vogue is environment friendly.

If we had been to explain this example in conventional topic/object phrases, we might say that peer manufacturing has a “low sign to noise ratio”. Nonetheless, it might be extra applicable (and constructive) to think about meanings as co-constructed as the method runs, and of messiness (or meaninglessness) as symptomatic, not of peer manufacturing itself, however of deficiencies or infelicities in shared meaning-making and “integrating” options.

Zipf’s regulation states that given some corpus of pure language utterances, the frequency of any phrase is inversely proportional to its rank within the frequency desk. Thus probably the most frequent phrase will happen roughly twice as typically because the second most frequent phrase, 3 times as typically because the third most frequent phrase, and so on.

Zipf’s regulation (or different formulations of the identical factor) govern the dimensions of cities, and associated formulations describe power use: roughly talking, an elephant has a decrease metabolism than a mouse and is extra “power environment friendly”. At that very same hyperlink, we see the suggestion that creativity in large-scale environmentshastens! The anti-pattern: what number of instances have we been at a convention or workshop and heard somebody say (or mentioned ourselves) “would not it’s nice if this power may very well be sustained all yr ‘spherical?” Or in a classroom or peer manufacturing setting, questioned why it’s that everybody doesn’t take part equally. “Would not it’s nice if we may enhance participation?” In case you imagine the end result above, large-scale participation would certainly have a tendency to extend creativity! – However however, participation does are inclined to fall off in accordance with some energy regulation (see Introduction to Energy Legal guidelines in The Uncertainty Precept, Quantity II, Situation 3), and it will be a grand phantasm to imagine that everybody is coming from an analogous place with regard to the varied literacies and motivations which might be conducive to participation. Moreover, a “provisionist” angle (“If we modify our system we are going to equalize participation and entry”) merely won’t work basically, since energy legal guidelines are inherently an epiphenomenon of networks. Be aware that participation in a given exercise typically (however not at all times) falls off over time as properly. This impact appears associated however can be not properly understood (many individuals wish to write a success tune / finest promoting novel / begin a faith / and so on., however few really do). See the anti-pattern “Magical Pondering” for extra on that. Concerning the title: Be aware that these brokers who do submit probably the most in a given collaboration (respectively, the phrases or concepts which might be commonest in a given language) will are inclined to affect the area probably the most. On this means, we are able to see some parallels between the Sapir-Whorf Speculation and Bourdieu’s notion of “symbolic violence”. A lot as Paul Graham wrote about programming languages — programmers are usually “glad with no matter language they occur to make use of, as a result of it dictates the way in which they consider applications” — so too are folks typically “glad” with their social environments, as a result of these are inclined to dictate the way in which they assume and act in life.

The issue I’m referring to breaks down like this:

  1. Actually we can not get issues executed simply by speaking about them.
  2. And but, suggestions can be helpful, i.e., if there are mechanisms for responding to it in a helpful vogue.
  3. The related anti-pattern is a particular case of the prototypical Bateson double bind, “the daddy who says to his son, go forward and criticize me – with the robust trace that each one efficient criticism might be very unwelcome.”

Certainly — criticism just isn’t at all times helpful. Generally it’s simply “noise”. The artwork of paragogical praxis is to make one thing helpful out of what would in any other case simply be noise.

Truly, in fact, dwelling beings are by no means actually in stasis. It simply generally feels that means. Completely different anti-patterns like Isolation or Navel-Gazing have described totally different points of the expertise of feeling like one is in stasis. Usually, what is occurring in such a case is that a number of dimensions of life are transferring very slowly.
As an illustration, it appears we aren’t capable of get programming help to enhance this model of the Social Media Classroom, for love or cash, since all developer power goes into the following model. This is not true stasis, however it could possibly really feel irritating when a particular small characteristic is desired, however unavailable. The answer? Do not get hung up on small issues, and discover the scale the place motion is potential. In a way that is analogous to consuming a balanced food plan. You most likely should not solely eat grilled cheese sandwiches, even when you like them quite a bit. You need to go for one thing totally different occasionally. That is additionally associated to the sample that talks about “Carrying Capability”. There’s at all times some dimension on which you may make progress — it simply may not be the identical dimension you’ve got lately over-harvested!
Bear in mind this from our article on organizing a studying context?

There’s a sure irony right here: we’re finding out “peeragogy”, and but many respondents didn’t really feel they had been actually attending to know each other “as friends”. A number of remarked that they discovered much less from different particular person individuals, and extra from “the collective”. Those that did have a “workforce”, or who knew each other from earlier experiences, felt extra peer-like in these relationships.

Are weak ties “robust”?[edit]

“Weak ties” are sometimes deemed a power: see for instance this text in Psychology Right now, which says:

[S]trong and weak ties are inclined to serve totally different features in our lives. Once we want an enormous favor or social or instrumental help, we ask our buddies. We name them when we have to transfer a washer. But when we want info that we do not have, the folks to ask are our weak ties. They’ve extra numerous data and extra numerous ties than our shut buddies do. We ask them once we wish to know who to rent to put in our washer.

The quote suggests that there’s a sure trade-off between use of weak ties and use of robust ties. The anti-pattern in query then is much less to do with whether or not we’re forming weak ties or robust ties, and extra to do with whether or not we’re being sincere with ourselves and with one another in regards to the nature of the ties we’re forming — and their potential makes use of. We will be “friends” in both a weak or a powerful sense. The query to ask is whether or not our wants match our expectations!

Within the peeragogy context, this has to do with how we work together. One of many individuals on this mission wrote:

I’m studying about peeragogy, however I believe I am failing [to be] peeragog[ue]. I keep in mind that Howard [once] advised us that an important factor is that you have to be accountable not solely to your personal studying however to your friends’ studying. […] So the query is, are we studying from others by ourselves or are we […] serving to others to be taught?

If we’re “solely” co-consumers of data (which occurs to “produced” reside, by a few of the individuals), then this looks like a traditional instance of a weak tie. We’re a part of the identical “viewers” — or anyway, in the identical “theater” (even when separated from one another by steady “4th partitions”). Then again, actively participating with different folks (whether or not with “my” studying, with “their” studying, or with the co-production of data) appears to be the inspiration for robust ties. On this case our goals (or wants) are extra instrumental, and fewer informational.

Individuals who don’t put within the effort and time will stay caught on the stage of “weak ties”, and will be unable to attract on the advantages that “robust ties” provide.

Major actor[edit]

Julian, an enthusiastic convert to the facility of peer-learning.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Reflecting on the success of Technique as Studying, Julian notes that different housing associations would possibly profit from this course of. He additionally notes that as most housing affiliation boards are made up of volunteers like himself, there’s a very huge variation in background, data and abilities, and due to this fact not solely a necessity for low price (free) studying alternatives, however a variety of abilities out there to allow them.
  2. Julian units up a peer studying useful resource on the internet, drawing on the experiences in implementing Technique as Studying, and promotes it via industry-specific net boards. He attracts consideration from a web based journalist writing within the housing subject who writes a optimistic article, and consequently a rising variety of collaborators come ahead.
  3. Over a interval of a yr or so, the core workforce of energetic customers collaborate to create requirements and exemplars in relation to totally different points of housing affiliation governance that turn into a de facto normal within the sector.


  1. Clearly a really particular use case that would simply be generalised
  2. Doable patterns to extract? Seeding Peer Communities, Emergent Requirements, Emergent Evaluation ???

Major Actors[edit]

Pierre and Marie – lately married.

Major Success State of affairs[edit]

  1. They furnished off an residence from a Sears & Roebuck sale. Their coolerator was filled with TV dinners and ginger ale. (She could not cook dinner.)
  2. However when Pierre discovered work, the little cash coming in labored out properly. They bought a hi-fi phono, and boy, did they let it blast — Seven hundred little EPs, all rock, rhythm and jazz.
  3. When the solar went down, the speedy tempo of the music type of fell (for numerous causes).
  4. They purchased a souped up Mercedes — a cherry crimson ’53 — and drove it right down to New Orleans to have fun their anniversary.
  5. “C’est la vie,” say the previous of us, “It goes to point out you by no means ca E

(Après Chuck Berry.)

Enhancing peeragoey  Handbook jsdijs8dhj


I attempted to make use of the acquainted tune to recommend that pæragogy works in private relationships, too. Evaluate the above story with this quote from Leopold von Sacher-Massoch…:

“That lady, as nature has created her and as man is at current educating her, is his enemy. She will solely be his slave or his despot, however by no means his companion. This she will be able to turn into solely when she has the identical rights as he, and is his equal in schooling and work.”

I do not know if Sacher-Massoch is especially dependable as a feminist. However it is attention-grabbing to take a look at “companionship” (together with membership in the identical age cohort) as a criterion for a peer-like and dealing relationship within the story. It is unclear as as to if Pierre & Marie have “equal” roles (he discovered work, nevertheless it’s not in any means implied that she was working… so how did she spend her time? And many others.).

Major Actor[edit]

Kim, a Ph. D. scholar in Geography.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Kim has 5 totally different folks on her supervision workforce: some in her subject, others from geology. All of them have considerably totally different concepts about what she needs to be doing along with her thesis work. None of them are co-located. This example will be fairly irritating.
  2. Kim decides to go spend a number of weeks working in shut proximity to the one member of the workforce who she has probably the most rapport with. This can even give her an opportunity to be in contact with different college students in her subject.
  3. In the meanwhile, she establishes contact with yet one more researcher whose work is sort of carefully associated to hers. Though he doesn’t have any formal tasks or ties to her mission, they’re already colleagues in an instructional sense, and so they have extra congruent views on what her mission is about. After she visits her favourite supervisor, she could plan to spend a month or so visiting this different researcher in his dwelling nation.

Be aware[edit]

I believe this type of networking to create a casual supervision workforce occurs pretty regularly for postgrad college students within the UK system. Actually there are different examples of distributed mission administration – e.g. W3C working teams come to thoughts.

Major Actor[edit]

A scholar, Madeleine, who’s making an attempt to be taught multivariable calculus.

Major Success State of affairs[edit]

  1. Madeleine is enrolled in a complicated calculus course at college. She learns about PlanetMath from her teacher who recommends it as a spot for additional apply with homework issues. Madeleine creates an account, fills in fundamental profile info, and begins fixing issues that the system provides based mostly on the data she equipped in her profile.
  2. The issues that the system provides are routinely linked to reference assets in PlanetMath’s encyclopaedia. This expository materials provides Madeleine easy accessibility to the related mathematical ideas, examples, and hints wanted for fixing the more and more tough apply issues. Nonetheless, she finally runs into an issue the place neither the routinely equipped info, nor her present data of the topic, is enough. She’s fully caught on an issue having to do with water circulate in a pipe! Madeleine attaches a assist request to the issue: “I perceive that I’ve to make use of the 2 variables x and y to resolve for water circulate, however I don’t perceive what the boundary limits of the equations could be: do I’ve to transform it to polar coordinates?”
  3. This request is seen by Natalie, a arithmetic graduate scholar who commonly seems on the feed displaying “latest requests for assist with superior calculus.” She sees that the reference assets linked to Madeleine’s drawback are most likely not enough, and that Madeleine’s concept about utilizing polar coordinates would work. Natalie makes some adjustments to the encyclopaedia indicating that changing to changing to polar coordinates will be crucial in pipe circulate issues, and sketches an instance. Natalie then checks that this info hyperlinks to Madeleine’s drawback accurately, and alerts Madeleine to the adjustments. With this new info, Madeleine just isn’t solely capable of remedy her drawback, however can proceed with confidence: she had the correct concept in spite of everything!

Major Actor[edit]

Madeleine, a number of years afterward, making an attempt to be taught actual evaluation.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Madeleine has been utilizing a peer-learning web site for arithmetic for some time now. When she will get caught, she asks for assist in context, and her request is delivered to the eye of the suitable neighborhood member, who improves the pedagogic high quality of the fabric. This assist permits her to resolve math issues very successfully.
  2. Now, nonetheless, the system’s software program is being up to date. As an alternative of being solely a “Net 2.0” system for speaking in regards to the topic, the system can maintain observe of recent ideas that Madeleine is utilizing within the issues she solves and the questions she asks. It will possibly recommend heuristics which were utilized by different college students fixing related issues. (It is aware of about this stuff via a mix of textual evaluation and “tagging” of textual content by Madeleine and different customers, e.g. Natalie, who generally provides feedback on issues that Madeleine solves.)
  3. Because the system grows and improves (via efforts of scholars and mentors), studying arithmetic turns into more and more straightforward. The fabric has been gone over by 100s of scholars and studying pathways are optimized. Madeleine generally can get a fast tutoring gig serving to out one other youthful scholar, and make some cash, however largely she’s fascinated about what different topics she might want to add to her portfolio with the intention to turn into an architect… by the point she’s 23!

Major actor[edit]

Javier, who works for the European Fee.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Javier is eager about analysis matters like “information analytics” and “rising matters in ICT” — issues that may affect studying know-how within the subsequent 5 years. He’s additionally involved about how finest to fund work on new studying and educating environments.
  2. He wonders what the boundaries and incentives are on this area of interest. For instance, why does analysis work regularly not have the broad-scale societal influence that the EC hopes it would?
  3. Javier is invited to a pæragogy occasion, during which some surprising specialists on “broad scale influence” assist him perceive that intensive funding for analysis is commonly not going to have the specified impact, since, for numerous causes, even well-funded analysis initiatives are regularly not properly related to precise apply.
  4. He begins to construct pæragogy into funding calls: smaller pots of cash going to initiatives that join with what folks really do, working with companions just like the Wikimedia Basis and the Free Software program Basis to multiply effort by involving volunteers. It is time for him to take a well-earned trip.

Major actor[edit]

Jorge Luis is a journalist for a London enterprise paper.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Jorge Luis writes on a day by day and even hourly foundation in regards to the eurozone disaster. He makes use of social dashboards and curating instruments and produces a number of curated tales in regards to the causes of the issues, the stupidity of the continental europeans and the way it will all finish quickly in full and utter catastrophe. His sources are different journalists, well-known economists and well-known bloggers.
  2. On his solution to the newsroom he often passes St Pauls cathedral, the place Occupy London folks protest. He thinks they quite appear to be losers, apart from one very attention-grabbing younger woman. She tells him the place he can discover the middle of the universe: on the Whispering Gallery of the cathedral. He thinks she is nuts, but in addition very stunning and attention-grabbing, so he walks the 259 steps from floor stage to the Gallery. As soon as he will get there, he realizes that the lady was proper. It IS the middle of the universe. There are murmurs to be heard there – it appears they arrive from in all places. He hears about guilds and the craftsmen who constructed the cathedral. He learns about how proud they had been and the way they shaped communities of apply, educating the uninitiated, educating one another to create.
  3. He returns to floor stage. The lady is gone, however but he feels pleased. He realizes he can do extra then repackage the social media streams, that there’s greater than Twitter-the-new broadcast medium. He begins a brand new journey: discovering a guild, a neighborhood of apply, however restyled in a 21st century vogue. It will likely be extra open, extra related to others then the previous guilds. He’ll nonetheless use a social dashboard and curaring instruments, but in addition he makes use of wikis, and synchronous communication. And most significantly, he begins constructing, along with others. As an illustration, along with the folks previously often called his readers. They’ll co-create the evaluation, the seek for options and sense-making, quite than helplessly listening to “specialists”, passively consuming the data and knowledge. As an alternative, they will begin constructing their very own future as a neighborhood, and the newsroom might be a part of the platform.

Major Actor[edit]

Charlie, who does tutoring and academic consulting, and who has been doing analysis on paragogy.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Charlie often tutors one-on-one however has been placing work into understanding and exploring peer studying and peer manufacturing, placing it into apply on P2PU and in programs and initiatives with Howard Rheingold.
  2. X-Y-Z peer studying concept (paragogy?) helps him design studying actions that work properly for teams of scholars
  3. He deploys the brand new mannequin on paragogy.web as an academic startup, and realizes the “OER dream”!

Major Actor[edit]

Howard runs Rheingold College and teaches programs at UCB and Stanford.

  1. Howard created the peeragogy mission, as a spot to experiment and be taught: “I wish to experiment as a lot as potential with peeragogy, with the group of contributors right here, with the co-learners in Rheingold U, and with different teams sooner or later. I wish to personally use the instruments we’re constructing. I do know one thing about the way to do it, and may make substantial contributions. However I additionally am studying quite a bit about the way to do it from others, and anticipate that to proceed.”
  2. Though “bringing a volunteer mission to completion […] is not a assured slam-dunk”, Howard learns by doing: “If I had it to do over once more, I’d have thought out the work circulate and delineated it earlier than we began speaking about the way to do the mission.”
  3. With each frequent, and different much less frequent, however considerate, contributors, the mission continues to develop, and can certainly full by some means (even when nobody knew fairly what to anticipate prematurely). Howard and different contributors have discovered quite a bit within the course of – and this might be helpful each at some stage in the peeragogy mission, and in future initiatives. As hoped!

Major Actor[edit]

Jess, a hacker and engineer who develops new libraries and applications shortly and on the bleeding edge of recent applied sciences.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Jess develops one thing new and completely cool and drops the supply code in GitHub. These instruments are developed quickly and are a a lot lighter “studying elevate” than studying say a wholly new programming language.
  2. She creates documentation for her new library and places it up on a website for different builders to learn.
  3. She is looking for a greater means for different builders to learn to use the brand new instruments and libraries she creates and begins fascinated about peer studying.
  4. How can she use what instruments and processes or strategies which might be already on the market to have interaction different builders to be taught from and with one another digitally? (Jess has no background in studying concept and isn’t within the academic subject.) She finds the peeragogy handbook and lots of these things begins to click on.

Major Actor[edit]

Neo, who’s a hacker by evening, and an workplace employee by day (and who reads Baudrillard in his spare time).

Major Success State of affairs[edit]

  1. Neo lives in New York Metropolis, and works as a programmer in an workplace close to Wall Avenue. His day-job entails discovering patterns in market information (see Kevin Slavin’s TED speak).
  2. He has been strolling previous Zucotti Park on his means dwelling and kind of he finds this protest stuff annoying (he has different stuff on his thoughts). However one in every of these evenings, one of many protestors catches his consideration (she’s dressed quite strikingly…). They speak a bit, and he comes away fascinated about what she mentioned: “All our grievances are interconnected.” What if all of the options are interconnected too?
  3. Evening time: Neo turns into more and more obsessive about this concept. He is flattening a number of net pages from OWS activists, from corporations, from authorities web sites — once more, searching for patterns. What wouldn’t it take for OWS of us to resolve the issues they fear a lot about?
  4. He finally stumbles throughout the thought of pæragogy and it really works just like the “crimson capsule”: it is potential to resolve the issues however solely by working collectively. It will be arduous to engineer a social media platform that may really assist with this (OWS of us largely use Tumblr and are not essentially all that technologically minded). However he begins engaged on a software that is geared in the direction of studying and sharing abilities, whereas engaged on actual initiatives. At first, it is simply hackers who’re utilizing the software, however over time they adapt it for in style use. Then issues begin to get attention-grabbing…


I believe that Peeragogy has flavors — studying for studying sake for private ends in a development towards studying in regards to the world to take motion as a bunch. The latter will get closely into Motion Analysis (Stringer, 2007), which I like and work closely in. It’s analysis in cycles, or loops with suggestions to strive one thing, measure it, see the way it labored with the true world, then plan the following query and set of actions. In every cycle, the group is Studying. I look with that lens at firm start-ups as a perpectual motion analysis cycle. I heard Eric Reis at SXSW speak in regards to the Lean Startup on this mode, together with this course in how he even wrote the guide. Speculation, experiment, suggestions, be taught, pivot, subsequent speculation… Is the group on this peeragogy studying set data or creating new data? Or via new data making a change on the earth? A terrific spectrum of alternate options! Right here, my state of affairs about an organization I used to be on the board on early on:

Major actors[edit]

  • Cycle 1: Nick, an MBA scholar, plus a Pc Science PhD, John, at a significant college. John had created a novel know-how for figuring out video clips and had no concept what to do with it. Nick was an ex-engineer studying about the way to launch new companies.
  • Cycle 2: Extra “learners” and co-teachers as board members, every including new studying parts and experience.
  • Cycle 3+: New learners as buyers and shoppers.

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Nick and John used a brand new marketing strategy competitors because the catalyst and construction to experiment with what concepts may be potential to develop this concept. They named it Findable (not the true identify; the corporate did launch with some attention-grabbing success, however we’ll come to that later). They introduced three different MBAs into the preliminary group, and throughout the confines of a marketing strategy construction, researched the stereotypical parts of a marketing strategy — addressable market, competitors, expense and income projections, and so on. They knew nothing of the realm, and every particular person did unbiased analysis work to offer some major (interview-based) and secondary (current textual content) details about their speculation of what the know-how may do for what viewers in what setting. They labored arduous up till the competitors deadline, and received the marketing strategy competitors, gaining $15,000 within the course of plus the eye of some VCs on the judging panel. Every particular person had discovered quite a bit in regards to the know-how, the artistic strategy of writing the marketing strategy, the rituals concerned of asking for cash, and the issues in their very own plan that they discovered on its creation. They used pretty conventional know-how instruments: electronic mail, shared Phrase and Excel recordsdata, phone, search, and a shared file system to retailer the whole lot that they labored on.
  2. Nick and Fred wished to maneuver ahead with this mission. Their subsequent speculation was that they might launch this in a particular market. They first got here to the thought, from the training from the marketing strategy and plenty of suggestions from the VCs, that they might begin with the promoting market, as they might now establish and “tag” any advert that they might discover on cable or the web. They bought seed capital from three events, who turn into a part of their Motion Analysis studying workforce. They realized to launch that they wanted extra voices on their studying workforce, in order that they added their first Three workers to design and promote the product. In addition they added an advisory board, together with yours really, assuming they might be working within the promoting market. Applied sciences? Conventional, although they now included all kinds of tech improvement assets. New info into the combination? They’d not put collectively nice assets to optimize their time studying, and spent lots of power maintaining with issues, info, and alternatives. Studying? Some preliminary customers cherished their product, however the market dimension was smaller than they thought…plus was very entrenched. The businesses didn’t see an actual ache level that was being solved.
  3. Cycle 3 — what the heck do Nick and Fred do with this? This grew to become the true studying part. Completely different corporations and advisors noticed totally different wants for his or her intriguing product set. They spent Four years (!!!) getting pulled this manner and that, utilizing the VC cash and needing extra. (That is VERY a lot the training path I see in lots of small tech corporations.) Applied sciences? Identical stuff. Studying workforce? Ebbed and flowed with new alternatives and folks’s persistence. My experience was within the “previous” mannequin, so peaceably left the workforce (however bought choices!).
  4. Cycle 4+ — a significant public firm “discovered” them via their studying cycles, and located that they solved a ache level. They invested a sizeable sum into a bit of the corporate, and launched their product into that answer. This opened an entire different set of studying doorways.
  5. Remaining cycle — Fortunately, I cashed out my choices. Two main media know-how corporations ended up shopping for two areas of key applied sciences in 2011, a lot to my very own pocketbook’s happiness. Nick and Fred had moved on earlier, turning the corporate studying over to specialised managers. I have to see what Nick is as much as subsequent….


  1. Many nice patterns had been tucked into many cycles of this use case, typically unstated assumptions in a brand new enterprise start-up, together with setting scanning, codifying specialist data, themes, modeling, and so on. Consensus constructing — an attention-grabbing aspect.
  2. For me, the extra parts are (a) the scaffolding of the “norms” of cycles (e.g., marketing strategy creation, a contest, a launch of a product) assist present “norming” frameworks that may assist teams obtain in addition to restrict their trying on the structural norms as something however “required” and (b) the lens of Motion Analysis Cycles from my very own POV. Are we setting a tough restrict of offering a speculation in our co-creation, so we all know once we are “executed” and what we’ve got to review? Then as soon as that chunk is finished (and CELEBRATED) that one other speculation will be investigated, explored, confirmed, and co-created? I imagine that having pre-structured factors of studying achievement, reflection, and celebration can actually assist in transferring ahead.
  3. My very own mind is rethinking these points round content material creation after listening to Eric Reis converse on how he examined his content material creation for his New York Occasions best-selling guide.
  4. How are we testing this Handbook, aside from dwelling via it? 🙂

“Clearly such a mission as Steal This E-book couldn’t have been carried out alone. Izak Haber shared the imaginative and prescient from the start. He did months of beneficial analysis and contributed lots of the survival strategies. Carole Ramer and Gus Reichbach of the New York Legislation Commune guided the guide via its many phases. Anna Kaufman Moon did virtually all the images. The cartoonists who’ve made contributions embrace Ski Williamson and Gilbert Sheldon. Tom Forcade, of the UPS, patiently did the enhancing. Bert Cohen of Live performance Corridor did the guide’s graphic design. Amber and John Wilcox set the sort. Anita Hoffman and Lynn Borman helped me rewrite a lot of sections. There are others who participated within the testing of lots of the strategies demonstrated within the following pages and for apparent causes have to stay nameless. There have been maybe over 50 brothers and sisters who performed notably very important roles within the grand conspiracy. Among the many others are listed on the next web page. We hope to maintain the data updated. In case you have feedback, regulation fits, options or dying threats, please ship them to: Expensive Abbie P.0. Field 213, Cooper Station, New York, NY 10003. Most of the suggestions may not work in your space, some may be out of date by the point you get to strive them out, and lots of addresses and telephone numbers may be modified. If the reader turns into a taking part researcher then we may have achieved our objective.” — Abbie Hoffman (emphasis added)

Major actors

The non-executive (Jim, Pamela, Julian) and government (Clare, Malcolm, Colin & Jenny) administrators of a housing affiliation (a not-for-profit organisation constructing and letting “social” housing for households in housing want) Major success state of affairs

  1. The board of the housing affiliation have to set a method that takes account of serious adjustments in laws, the UK [welfare] advantages system and the supply of long run building loans.
  2. Julian, keen to utilize his new-found peeragogical insights suggests an method the place people analysis particular components and the workforce work collectively to attract out themes and strategic choices. As a begin he proposes that every board member researches an space of particular data or curiosity.
  3. Jim, the Chairman, identifies questions he desires to ask the Chairs of different Housing Associations. Pamela (a lawyer) agrees to do an evaluation of the related laws. Clare, the CEO, plans out a collection of conferences with the native councils within the boroughs of curiosity to grasp their reactions to the adjustments from central authorities. Jenny, the operations director, begins modelling the influence on occupancy from new advantages guidelines. Colin, the event director, re-purposes current work on choices for improvement websites to mirror totally different housing mixes on every website. Malcolm, the finance director, prepares a briefing on the brand new treasury panorama and the altering positions of main lenders.
  4. Every member of the board paperwork their analysis in a personal wiki. Julian facilitates some synchronous and asynchronous dialogue to attract out themes in every space and map throughout the areas of curiosity. Malcolm, the FD, adapts his monetary fashions to take differet choices as parameters.
  5. Clare refines the themes right into a set of strategic choices for the affiliation, with related monetary modelling supplied by Malcolm.
  6. Particular person board members discover the choices asynchronously earlier than convening for an all-day assembly to verify the technique.


  1. This can be somewhat near the “peer manufacturing” finish of peeragogy, however alternatively, the place (if anyplace) will we draw the road?
  2. This most likely must be made somewhat extra summary to be a helpful use case, and in doing so I believe will begin to overlap with Pæragogy helps remedy complicated issues
  3. It seems to me as if there could also be some candidate patterns buried on this use case, e.g. Setting Scanning, Codifying Specialist Data, Extracting Themes, Modelling Outcomes, Consensus Constructing

Major Actor[edit]

Trinity, the daughter of a Texas oil magnate.


You Make Me Like Charity by The Knife

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Trinity has spent the final yr touring around the globe to hitch in numerous #Occupy protests. Her purpose is to get folks within the motion fascinated about how they’ll empower themselves.
  2. It is tough although, as a result of as a lot as she is aware of she has an influence on people, she nonetheless sees lots of issues on the earth, which, given her manic-depressive tendencies, she tends to seek out very disturbing.
  3. She reaches out to people who’re privileged in a technique or one other — and a bunch of “regular of us” — making an attempt not solely to result in political change, however making an attempt to determine a level of non-public friendship and camaraderie, and a sense of “belonging on the earth”. For her, this can be a fixed wrestle. She finds that working with different folks on concrete duties retains her from spiraling right into a state of gloom. In the meanwhile, she’s additionally constructing an incredible quantity of data about the way in which social actions and political processes work.


“The Knife is now recording a brand new album to be launched in 2012. Currently we’ve got learn quite a bit in regards to the ongoing discrimination of Romani folks in Europe which is completely unacceptable. The pressured evictions should cease and satisfactory different housing have to be organized. Now!” — The Knife

Major actor: Simone[edit]

Simone is a younger media division graduate, who adopted the adventures of the journalist Jorge Luis. Jorge Luis was remodeling the newspaper operation right into a sort of collective studying mission, turning the newsroom right into a platform for dialogue and studying, and inciting the builders to offer an API for exterior coders. Simone wrote a paper about all this in her final yr on the media division.’She additionally runs a weblog about instruments which empower folks to take part in politics (native, nation-wide and worldwide).

Major success state of affairs[edit]

  1. Simone loves her weblog. She believes verticals and specialization are the long run in running a blog. Nonetheless, she wants cash to reside, and to pay again the money owed she made to finance her research. Her media division was reasonably attention-grabbing, however no one ever considered organizing a course “entrepreneurial running a blog/journalism”.
  2. Posting day-after-day about collaborative on-line instruments akin to wikis, boards, blogs, mindmaps, synchronous classes, social bookmarks, visualization instruments, Simone decides to achieve out and look on-line for others who’re experiencing the identical challenges.
  3. As she encounters numerous different folks, they begin curating stuff about running a blog enterprise fashions and finest practices. They discover a number of helpful stuff free of charge at Robin Good’s web site, and so they handle to get entry to on-line assets at an odd group which appears to focus on “thoughts amplifying instruments” and “literacies of cooperation”. In addition they uncover that “entrepreneurial journalism” is taught at numerous faculties, and invariably the professors and many of the college students there bask in running a blog and publishing about their insights and experiments. All that materials is being mentioned on the collaborative platform Simone constructed.
  4. Simone makes use of the discussions to weblog about her expertise. In spite of everything, points about financing media who empower folks with the intention to broaden and deepen the democracy is one thing which is quite on subject for her personal running a blog apply. Additionally, due to her reaching out, her contacts elevated significantly. She works along with somebody to share a digital co-working area, and folks begin noticing her. Some ask her for personalized knowledgeable recommendation about collaborative instruments and collaboration methodologies. The town council expresses some obscure curiosity and considers hiring her as a guide.
  5. Although she will get a number of gigs, Simone realizes it is not straightforward to earn a dwelling as a blogger. However it appears to open different doorways… nonetheless, she continues her investigation about enterprise fashions for collaborative media. As but we do not know whether or not Simone’s weblog might be worthwhile in itself, however we do see a community round her initiatives, exchanging insights but in addition beneficial enterprise info and opening extra doorways.


I had the chance to present some seminars at media departments right here in Belgium. In my expertise, the scholars weren’t aware of curation practices or infotention methods. In addition they lack programs in entrepreneurial journalism. In different phrases, they’re nonetheless educated for the large media corporations, however they don’t seem to be ready to begin the following TechCrunch or Huffington Submit. Usually the scholars requested me, after the seminar, “how can we be taught all this? they will not train us this stuff right here”. I believe there’s a want for P2P studying about not solely curation, infotention, social dashboards, communities and governance of frequent pool recourses, but in addition about publishing methods, social media workflows and enterprise fashions.
LALTYUNC CIJC09X [email protected]

It’s tempting to carry a listing of applied sciences out as an excellent cookbook. We’d like a half cup of group writing instruments, 2 tsp. of social community parts, a thick slice of social bookmarking, and a few sugar, then put it within the oven for 1 hour for 350 levels.

We’ve created a broad options/features checklist for Handbook readers to mirror upon and take into account. The enjoyment of this checklist is that you would be able to take into account alternate options for the way in which you talk and work when you are planning the mission, or can add in new parts to resolve communications gaps or create new instruments.

Nonetheless, too many instruments spoil the broth. Within the writing of this Handbook, we discovered that out firsthand. We spent lots of marvelous power exploring totally different instruments to collaborate, curate info, do analysis, tag assets, and adjudicate amongst all of our factors of view. In teams working with the varied MOOCs, as one other instance, totally different teams of scholars typically camp in several social media applied sciences to work. In massive programs, college students typically must be pushed into numerous social media instruments to “co-create” with nice protest and plenty of inertia. And eventually, co-learning teams typically come from very totally different backgrounds, ages, and phases of life, with very totally different instruments embedded of their present lives. Do we’ve got time for 3 extra instruments in our busy days? Do extra instruments assist or intervene in our work?

On this part, we’ll share with you a number of points:

  • What applied sciences are most helpful in peer studying? What will we use them for? What options or features assist our co-learning course of?
  • How will we resolve (a) as a bunch and (b) for the group on what instruments we are able to use? Will we resolve upfront, or develop as we go?
  • How will we coach and scaffold one another on use of instruments?
  • How a lot do the software decisions influence the precise consequence of our studying mission?
  • What are the totally different roles that co-learners can soak up co-teaching and co-coaching the know-how affordances/assumptions within the mission to make others’ lives simpler?

Options and Concerns[edit]

We’ll start under with a discussions of “options” and preliminary issues, after which transfer to a broader “Select Your Personal Journey”-style matrix of options resulting in all kinds of collaboration-based know-how instruments on-line.

Applied sciences and Options[edit]

As we are going to share within the intensive checklist under, there are ample instruments now out there — each free of charge and for pay — to carry nice options to our co-learning endeavors. It’s tempting to seize a bunch of fancy instruments and produce the group into a reasonably complicated software setting to seek out the proper mixture of assets. The problem: as Grownup Learners, we search each consolation and context in our lives (Schein, 1997, 2004). In selecting instruments as Manufacturers and applied sciences, we are able to ignore the options themselves and what we want as elements of the puzzle for studying. We can also have anxiousness about our self-beliefs round computer systems and know-how, which in flip can restrict our talents (Compeau & Higgins, 1995).

Earlier than we get to Manufacturers and decisions, it helps to ask a number of questions in regards to the studying objectives and environments:

  • What do we want as options, and at what stage of the training course of?
  • What are we already comfy with, individually and as a bunch?
  • Will we wish to stick with comfy current instruments, or will we wish to stretch, or each?
  • What sorts of learners do we’ve got on this group? Technologically superior? Comfy with fundamentals?
  • Will we wish to make investments the time to carry the entire group on top of things on instruments? Do all of the group members agree on this? Will we wish to threat alienating members by making them make investments time in new assets?
  • We all know that our use will migrate and adapt. Will we wish to plan for adaptation? Observe it? Study from it? Make that change intentional as we go?

Researchers through the years have closely examined these questions of human, know-how, and job slot in many arenas. Human-Pc Interplay researchers have checked out “match” and “adaptive conduct,” in addition to how the instruments can have an effect on how the issue is introduced within the work (Te’eni, 2006). Creativity help instruments (Shneiderman, 2002) have an entire line of design analysis, as has the sphere of Pc-Supported Collaborative Work Methods (CSCW). For co-learners and designers within the abundance on this area, we have added some further hyperlinks under.

We right here will make this a bit simpler. In your co-learning setting, you could wish to do one or two workouts in your determination planning:

  • What options do you want? Do you want collaboration? Graphic fashions? Locations to work on the similar time (synchronous)? Between conferences (asynchroous)?
  • What are the group members already utilizing as their private studying platforms? It additionally is smart to do a list about what the group already has as their studying platforms. I am doing that with one other studying group proper now. Individuals are way more comfy — as we even have present in our co-creation of this Handbook — creating and co-learning in instruments with which they already are comfy. Members will be co-teachers to one another — as we’ve got have — in new platforms.
  • What kind of instruments, based mostly on the options that we want, lets begin out with? Resnick at al. (2005)checked out know-how instruments having
    • Low thresholds (straightforward to get folks began)
    • Huge partitions (ready to usher in a number of totally different conditions and makes use of) and
    • Excessive ceilings (capable of do complicated duties because the customers and makes use of adapt and develop).

What are necessary options wanted for co-creation and working collectively? In different pages above, we speak abundantly about roles and co-learning challenges. These points additionally will not be new; Dourish & Bellottii again in 1992 for instance, shared long-standing points in computer-supportive collaborative work on-line about how we’re conscious of the data from others, passive vs. energetic technology of details about collaborators, and so on. These challenges was once “solved” by software program designers in particular person instruments. Now that instruments are open, ample, and numerous, teams embrace these similar challenges when selecting between on-line assets for co-learning.

Which of those might be necessary to your group work? Be mindful — your wants for instruments, plus how the group makes use of them, will change because the co-learning mission strikes alongside. Are you keen to alter instruments throughout the mission as your wants and customers change, or do you wish to plan on instruments which might be nice in all these dimensions at the beginning?

Helpful Makes use of and fancy Options of Technological Instruments[edit]

From right here, we are going to assist you consider what may be potential, linking to options and answer concepts.

We begin with methods to ask the important thing questions: What do you wish to do and why? We’ll begin with options organized round a number of totally different axes:

Every will hyperlink to pages that may immediate you with options, performance, and know-how software concepts.


We will additional break down instruments into whether or not they create or distribute, or whether or not we are able to work concurrently (synchronous) or at our personal instances (ascynchronous). To make parts of time and place extra visible, Baecker (1995) created a CSCW Matrix, bringing collectively time and place features and wishes:

Identical Time (Synchronous)’ Completely different Time (Ascynronous)
Identical Place (Co-located) Face-to Face: Show-focused (e.g., Smartboards) Steady Activity: Groupware, mission administration
Completely different Place (Distant) Distant Interplay: Videoconference, IM, Chat, Digital Worlds Communication & Coordination: Electronic mail, bulletin boards, Wikis, weblog, workflow instruments

Some instruments are synchronous, akin to Google+ Hangouts, Blackboard Collaborate, and Adobe Join, whereas others allow us to work asynchronously, akin to wikis, boards, and Google Docs. We appear to be contemplating right here largely instruments good for group work, however not for solo, whereas many others are a lot simpler solo or in smaller teams.

Levels of Actions and Duties[edit]

Dan Shneiderman (2002) has simplified the ample fashions on this space (e.g., Couger and Cave) with a transparent mannequin of Four normal actions and eight duties in creation for people, which we are able to lean on as one other framework for co-creation in co-learning.



  • Pondering (Free Affiliation)
  • Exploring
  • Composing
  • Reviewing


Instruments and features will not be clear lower between areas. For instance, some instruments are extra centered on being generative, or for creating content material. Wikis, Etherpad, Google docs, and others often have a commenting/speak web page aspect, but producing content material is the first aim and discursive/consultative features are in service of that. Some instruments are discursive, or centered on working collectively for the artistic aspect of “relating” above — Blackboard Collaborate, the social media class room boards, and so on.

Talent Constructing (Cognitive, a la Bloom’s Taxonomy, see under)[edit]

Provided that we’re exploring studying, we are able to look to Bloom’s Taxonomy (revised, Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) for steerage as to how we are able to have a look at data help. Beginning on the backside, we’ve got:

  • Evaluating, after which, on the high,

We may put “search” within the Remembering class above. Others [need to re-find and cite] contest that Search, executed properly, embraces many of the Bloom’s parts above. Samantha Penney has created a Bloom´s Digital Taxonomy Pyramid of instruments for studying (cc 3.0 —

Use Circumstances (I wish to….)[edit]

Applied sciences will be outlined in accordance with the necessity they serve or use case they fulfill. Examples: If we have to ‘curate’, Pearl Bushes is an choice. To ‘publish’ or ‘create’, we are able to look to a wiki or wordpress. Different decisions may be nice with the intention to ‘collaborate’, and so on.

One problem is that instruments will not be that easy. As we glance extra carefully on the applied sciences at present, we have to attain extra broadly so as to add a number of tags to them. For instance Twitter can be utilized for “Convening a bunch,” for “micro-blogging,” for “analysis,” and so on.

  • Curate Info (choose content material, contextualize, and share it)
  • Create Studying Actions

These plans get extra complicated, as you make a bunch of selections about software performance with the intention to select what mixture works to be used instances. It might be most helpful to make use of an idea map (a tech software) to consider the wants and combos that you’d carry collectively to attain every Use Case or Studying Module.

Know-how Options/Capabilities[edit]

We’ve not made this straightforward! There are many transferring parts and choices right here, none of them proper for the whole lot, and a few of them fabulous for particular features and wishes. Some have the low thresholds however will not be broad in scope. Some are broad for a lot of makes use of; others are particular task-oriented instruments. That’s a few of the appeal and frustration.

Weaving the entire above collectively, we’ve got introduced collectively a shared taxonomy for us to debate and take into consideration co-learning know-how options and features, which we current as an appendix under. This connects numerous know-how options inside an expanded model of Ben Shneiderman’s creativity help instruments framework. We have created this linked toolset with a number of tags, hopefully making it simpler so that you can consider which software fits finest the requirements of the group. Please take into account this a place to begin to your personal related exploration.

Appendix: Options and Capabilities[edit]

Weaving all of those frameworks collectively, we’ve got introduced collectively a shared taxonomy for us to debate and take into consideration co-learning know-how options and features. We’ve related numerous know-how options with an expanded model of Ben Shneiderman’s creativity help instruments framework for the linked useful resource information.

Be aware: please add instruments as posts that observe the next template format.

Click on the hyperlinks under to take you to samples of every of those options and features in teams of instruments. Please take into account this a place to begin to your personal related exploration.




Planning/Designing (a cycle of Studying earlier than the Co-Studying)[edit]

  • Speaking
  • Deciding and Creating Alternate options

Gather/Share Inbound[edit]

  • Consulting Others from the Outdoors


  • Connecting with Others within the Group


  • Pondering (Free Affiliation)
  • Exploring
  • Composing
  • Reviewing



A Key Useful resource[edit]


  • Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for studying, educating and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of academic targets: Full version. New York, NY: Longman.
  • [3]Baecker, R., Grudin, J., Buxton, W., & Greenberg, & (eds.) (1995): Readings in Human-Pc Interplay: Towards the 12 months 2000. New York, NY: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
  • Compeau, D.R., & Higgins, C.A. (1995, June). Pc Self-Efficacy: Growth of a Measure and Preliminary Take a look at. MIS Quarterly, 19, (2), 189-211.
  • Dourish, P. & Bellotti, V. (1992). Consciousness and coordination in shared workspaces. In Proceedings of the 1992 ACM convention on Pc-supported cooperative work (CSCW ’92). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 107-114. DOI=10.1145/143457.143468
  • Resnick, M, Myers, B, Nakakoji, Okay, Shneiderman, B, Pausch, R, Selker, T. & Eisenberg, M (2005). Design ideas for instruments to help artistic considering. Institute for Software program Analysis. Paper 816.
  • Schein, E. H. (1997). Organizational studying as cognitive re-definition: Coercive persuasion revisited. Cambridge, MA: Society for Organizational Studying.
  • Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational tradition and management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Shneiderman, B. (2002). Creativity help instruments. Commun. ACM 45, 10 (October 2002), 116-120. DOI=10.1145/570907.570945
  • Te’eni, D. (2006). Designs that match: An outline of match conceptualizations in HCI. In Human-Pc Interplay and Administration Info Methods: Foundations, edited by P. Zhang and D. Galletta, pp. 205-221, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Extra Analysis for Co-Learners[edit]

  • Irene Greif and Sunil Sarin (1987): Knowledge Sharing in Group Work, ACM Transactions on Workplace Info Methods, vol. 5, no. 2, April 1987, pp. 187-211.
  • Irene Greif (ed.) (1988): Pc-Supported Cooperative Work: A E-book of Readings, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman.
  • Irene Greif (1988): Remarks in panel dialogue on “CSCW: What does it imply?”, CSCW ‘88. Proceedings of the Convention on Pc-Supported Cooperative Work, September 26-28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, ACM, New York, NY.
  • Kamnersgaard, 1988
  • Vessey & Galletta, 1991
  • Norman, 2001, 2003
  • DeSanctis & Pool, 2004

Within the context of P2P-learning, a wiki platform generally is a helpful and highly effective collaboration software. This part will aid you perceive what a wiki is and what it isn’t, why you need to use it, how to decide on a wiki engine and at last how you would use it in a P2P context. Some examples of P2P-learning initiatives run on wikis will aid you see the potential of the software.

What’s a wiki?[edit]

For Ward Cunningham father of the wiki, “a wiki is a freely expandable assortment of interlinked Net ‘pages’, a hypertext system for storing and modifying info – a database, the place every web page is well editable by any consumer with a forms-capable Net browser shopper” [1]

In accordance with Wikipedia : “a wiki is a web site whose customers can add, modify, or delete its content material by way of an online browser utilizing a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor” [2]

You’ll be able to watch this CommonCraft video wiki in plain english to raised perceive what a wiki is.

What differentiates the wiki from different co-editing instruments?[edit]

The earlier definitions present {that a} wiki is a “web site,” in different phrases it’s composed of pages which might be related collectively by hyperlinks.In additiont each approved particular person (not all wikis are completely open like Wikipedia) can edit the pages from an online browser, lowering time and area constrains. In case one saves a mistake or for another motive wish to return to a earlier model, a characteristic known as “historical past” permits customers to see earlier variations and to roll again any of them. This model historical past permits additionally to check variations avoiding the cluttered of the “commentaries rainbow” we’re used too in in style Phrase processors. For instance when you work on a wiki web page, and are available again afterward, it is possible for you to to catch up by evaluating your final model with the lastest model of another person.

Instruments like Google Docs or Etherpad are design to allow co-editing on a single doc. This may be seen as a “wiki means” of engaged on a doc as it’s net based mostly and consists of versioning. However it isn’t a wiki as a result of a single doc just isn’t a web site. These instruments provide realtime collaboration which wikis don’t and are to date simpler to make use of for freshmen as they work in WYSIWYG mode, which many wikis don’t help. Nonetheless, the superior options wiki markup language make it a extra highly effective software. In abstract, instruments like Googles Docs or Etherpad are an effective way to shortly collaborate (synchronously, asynchronously, or a mix of each) on a single doc free of charge, with a low barrier to entry and no technical help. (Be aware that Etherpad does have a “wiki-links” plugin that may enable it for use in a extra wiki-like means; Hackpad is one other real-time enhancing software that prominently options linking — and it claims to be “the perfect wiki ever”.)

Utilizing an actual wiki engine is extra attention-grabbing for greater initiatives and permits an enormous variety of customers to collaborate on the identical platform. A wiki reduces the coordination complication as e-mails exchanges are not any extra wanted to coordinate a mission. Then again it could possibly assist us cope with complexity [3][4] particularly when you put fundamental easy guidelines in place just like the Wikipedia’s impartial standpoint to permit each participant to share her or his concepts.

Going again to the continuum we talked about earlier than, some instruments like Moodle, SharePoint, WordPress, Drupal or others have construct in wiki options. These options will be good however will usually not be pretty much as good for wiki-building functions as a well-developed special-purpose wiki engine. In different phrases, these instruments most important focus just isn’t the wiki, which is barely a secondary characteristic. While you select an actual wiki engine like Mediawiki, Tiki, Foswiki, and so on., the wiki might be your platform, not a characteristic of it. For instance when you begin a wiki exercise in a Moodle course, this wiki might be solely seen to a particular group of scholars and searchable solely to these college students. Then again in case your studying platform is a wiki, the entire platform might be searchable to all members concerning their permissions. We’re not saying right here {that a} wiki is healthier than different instruments however when you want a wiki engine to handle your wants you could take into account going with a powerful wiki engine quite than a “micro-wiki” engine embedded in an different software.

Why use a wiki?[edit]

These are the primary causes you need to take into account a wiki to your peer studying initiatives :

  • to scale back coordination complication by having a central and at all times updated place to retailer your content material. You’ll cut back e-mail utilization drasticly, and have entry to your content material from in all places utilizing any working system
  • to maintain observe of the evolution of your mission and be capable to view or roll again any earlier model of a wiki web page utilizing the historical past characteristic
  • to make hyperlinks between wiki pages to attach concepts and folks but in addition make hyperlinks to exterior URL’s. This final risk may be very useful to quote your sources
  • to cope with complexity. As a wiki permits anybody to contribute, when you set some straightforward guidelines like Wikipedia’s NPOV (Impartial Level of View), it is possible for you to to catch extra complexity as you’ll enable everybody to specific his or her opinion. Wikis additionally combine a discussion board or remark characteristic that may aid you remedy enhancing conflicts
  • to cope with work in progress. A wiki is a superb software to seize an on going work
  • to help transparency by letting each members of the neighborhood see what others are doing
  • to help a community construction as a wiki is by essence an horizontal software. Utilizing a hyperlinks it is possible for you to to : “bounce by a single clic from a community node to the opposite, from a pc to an different, from one info to the opposite, from one univers to the opposite, from one mind to the opposite.” Translated from [5]

How to decide on a wiki engine?[edit]

You’ll discover greater than 100 totally different wiki engines. The primary most important distinction is between open supply ones which might be free to obtain and business ones you’ll have to pay for. You’ll discover highly effective engines on either side open supply and business. Generally the open supply ones look much less polished at first sight however are backed by a powerful neighborhood and provide lots of customization prospects. The business are bought like a bundle, they’re properly introduced however typically they provide much less customization on the consumer facet and extra characteristic or customized made instruments will price you an additional payment. The second distinction that we are able to make is between wiki farms and self-hosted wikis. The wiki farm is a internet hosting service you will discover for each open supply or business wikis. The aim of these farms is to simplify the internet hosting of particular person wikis. In case you do not wish to select a wiki farm internet hosting, you’ll have to host the wiki by yourself server. This offers you extra latitude and information privateness however would require extra technical abilities and price you upkeep charges.

The Wikimatrix website will aid you select the perfect wiki to your wants. It lets you evaluate the options of greater than 100 wiki engines. Right here is the highest ten checklist of the perfect wiki engines by Ward Cunningham.

How can a wiki be helpful in a peeragogy mission?[edit]

A wiki is an efficient software collaborative initiatives and a specifically suited to work in progress as you possibly can simply observe adjustments utilizing the historical past, evaluate these model and if crucial roll again a earlier variations. In different phrases, nothing will get misplaced.

Listed here are some concepts about the way to use a wiki in a peeragogy mission :

  • Use a wiki as your studying platform. It will possibly additionally help Huge Open On-line Programs (MOOCs). A wiki will aid you set up your studying context. You’ll be able to select to present entry to your wiki solely to the mission individuals or open it to the general public like Wikipedia. Utilizing hyperlinking, you’ll operationalize the idea of connectivism by connecting nodes collectively. As a studying platform wikis are highly effective as a result of you possibly can simply see what others are doing, share with them, get impressed, merge concepts or hyperlink to concepts. In different phrases, it creates emulation between learners. For extra ressources about wiki in schooling observe this Diigo hyperlink.
  • Handle your peeragogy mission. A wiki is a superb software for mission collaboration. Above all, the wiki generally is a central place for peer learners to jot down or hyperlink to content material. Even when you use a number of applied sciences to run your mission as we did to jot down this handbook, on the finish of the day, all of the content material will be centralized on a wiki utilizing direct writing on wiki pages or hyperlinks. This manner members can entry the content material from anyplace and from any system related to the web utilizing any platform or software and they’ll at all times see the newest model whereas having the ability to flick thru the variations historical past to grasp what has modified since their final go to.
  • Publish your mission. As a wiki is a web site you possibly can simply use it to point out your work to the world. Concerning net design, do not forget {that a} wiki can look means higher than a Wikipedia web page when you customise it

Examples of peeragogy initiatives run on wikis[edit]

Appropedia is a wiki website for collaborative options in sustainability, poverty discount and worldwide improvement via the usage of sound ideas and applicable know-how and the sharing of knowledge and mission info. The positioning is open to stakeholders to seek out, create and enhance scalable and adaptable options.

Teahouse is a peeragogy mission run on a wiki that provides newcomers a spot to find out about Wikipedia tradition and get suggestions from skilled Wikipedians.

What are the perfect practices when utilizing a wiki?[edit]

  • Cofacilitation — assist one another be taught, assist one another administer
  • Self-election — allow folks to decide on what they wish to work on, at their very own tempo, in their very own means
  • Communication — use remark threads and speak pages to debate wiki adjustments
  • Documenting adjustments — most wikis allow editors to jot down very transient descriptions of their edits
  • Guidelines — maintain guidelines at a minimal stage to keep away from chaos with out constraining creativity
  • Enjoyable — make it enjoyable for folks to contribute


  1. Leuf, Bo, et Ward, Cunningham. 2001. The Wiki means : fast collaboration on the Net. Boston: Addison-Wesley, xxiii, 435 p. p.14
  2. Wiki on Wikipedia
  3. Andrus, Calvin D. 2005. Towards a fancy adaptative intelligence neighborhood – The wiki and the weblog. Research in Intelligence. vol. 49, no 3. On-line :
  4. Barondeau, Régis. 2010. La gestion de projet croise le wiki. École des Sciences de la Gestion, Université du Québec à Montréal, 180 pp.
  5. Ayache, Gérard. 2008. Homo sapiens 2.0 : introduction à une histoire naturelle de l’hyperinformation. Paris: Milo, 284 p. p.179

Creator: Howard Rheingold


Net companies that allow broadband-connected learners to speak in actual time by way of audio, video, slides, whiteboards, chat, and screen-sharing allow studying teams so as to add a few of the audio-visual dimensions acquainted from synchronous face-to-face communication to in any other case asynchronous platforms akin to boards, blogs, and wikis. This text consists of assets for locating and evaluating applicable for-free or for-fee platforms, recommendations on participative actions for real-time conferences, and options for mixing real-time and asynchronous media.

Actual-time assembly media[edit]

This Peeragogy Handbook was conceived and constructed by a bunch of individuals on 4 continents who had not met and had not recognized about one another earlier than we started assembly on-line. The method entails asynchronous media, together with boards, wikis, social bookmarking teams, and WordPress, nevertheless it most likely would by no means have cohered into a bunch able to collective motion if it had not been for the real-time conferences the place we had been capable of see one another’s faces, hear one another’s voices, use a whiteboard as an nameless agenda-generator, trade hyperlinks in chat, present one another examples via screen-sharing. Collectively, the asynchronous and real-time media enabled us to start to see ourselves as an efficient group. We used each real-time and asynchronous instruments to work out processes for creating, refining, and publishing the Handbook, to divide labor, resolve on platforms and processes, to collaboratively compose and edit articles, and to design and add graphical and video parts. Specifically, we used the Blackboard Collaborate platform, a web-service that permits as much as 50 folks at a time to satisfy in a multimedia, recordable, assembly room for round $500/yr. We have experimented with different paid platforms, akin to Adobe Join (about the identical worth as Collaborate), and once we meet in teams of ten or much less, we regularly use the free and recordable Google+ Hangout service. Smaller teams additionally use Skype. We’re watching the event of Huge Blue Button, a free and open-source real-time assembly platform, because it develops the complete suite of instruments which might be at the moment solely out there for a payment. Dozens of different free, ad-supported and/or freemium webconferencing programs akin to Huge Marker and Dim-Dim will be present in lists like Howard Rheingold’s and Robin Good’s. Free telephone conferencing companies present one other technological “lowest frequent denominator”: some present a number of extras like downloadable recordings.

Options of real-time assembly platforms[edit]

There are a lot of free companies for chat, screen-sharing, whiteboards, and video conferencing, however combining all these elements in separate panes of the identical display screen (ideally) or as separate tabs of a browser can have a robust synchronizing and harmonizing impact on the group. The options to search for in assembly platforms embrace:

Audio and video: Select platforms that allow voice-over-internet-protocol (VOIP) and straightforward methods for individuals to configure their microphones and audio system. Right now’s webcams, along with satisfactory lighting and a broadband connection, allow a lot of folks to be seen on the similar time. In Blackboard Collaborate, the one who is talking at a given second is seen within the largest video pane, whereas different individuals can be found in smaller video home windows. Audio and video convey way more of a human dimension than textual content communications alone. A bunch of people that have seen and heard one another on-line are capable of work collectively by way of asynchronous media akin to boards and wikis extra successfully. On-line face-to-face conferences are sometimes the easiest way for a bunch to argue constructively and resolve on important points. Boards and electronic mail are comparatively unhealthy decisions for distributed decision-making.

Slide pushing: The very best platforms will convert .ppt or .pdf recordsdata for sequential show. With the addition of textual content chat, annotations to slides, and the flexibility to “increase your hand” or interrupt together with your voice, a web based lecture generally is a extra multidimensional expertise than even a extremely discursive in-person lecture.

Textual content chat: As a backchannel, a way of shortly exchanging hyperlinks to related assets, a channel for collaborative note-taking, a means of speaking with the lecturer and with different individuals, textual content chat provides a very helpful dimension to real-time peeragogical conferences — particularly when the division of labor is explicitly agreed upon prematurely. We have discovered that even in conferences that use the real-time collaborative editor Etherpad for collaborative word taking, individuals could gravitate towards the built-in chat field for dialogue.

Display screen sharing: The power of individuals to point out one another what’s on their screens turns into particularly necessary in peer studying, the place all of us have some issues to point out one another.

Net excursions: A substitute for screen-sharing is the flexibility to show the identical net web page(s) to all individuals by getting into URLs.

Interactive whiteboards: A shared area that permits individuals to enter textual content, drawings, shapes, colours, to maneuver and resize media, and to import graphic content material — particularly if it permits nameless actions — can foster the sensation of taking part in a collective intelligence. Collaborative nameless mind-mapping of the dialogue is one approach to strive with whiteboards. The whiteboard will also be used to generate an emergent agenda for an “un-meeting”.

Configuring Google+ Hangout – a free different for as much as 10 folks[edit]

For as much as 10 folks, every geared up with a webcam, microphone, and broadband connection, Google+ Hangout can present high-quality audio-video conferencing. By enabling the text-chat characteristic and including Google Docs, screensharing, and SketchUp (whiteboard), it’s potential to emulate most of what the business companies provide. Adobe Join and Blackboard Collaborate at the moment have the user-interface benefit of displaying chat, video, whiteboard/slides as resizable panes on one display screen; at current, the free Google companies can present a robust extension of the fundamental audio-video platform, however individuals must shift between totally different tabs or home windows within the browser. Be aware that it’s potential to stream a Hangout and report it to YouTube, once more for gratis to the consumer.

Strategies for real-time conferences[edit]

Within the 9 on-line programs I’ve facilitated, the emphasis on co-learning inspired individuals to recommend and form energetic roles throughout real-time conferences. By creating and taking over roles, and shifting from function to function, individuals have interaction in a sort of collective studying about collective studying which will be as pleasurable in addition to helpful. Usually we first brainstorm, then analyze, then set up and current the data that we uncover, assemble, and in the end convey collectively.

Roles for individuals in real-time conferences[edit]

  • Searchers: search the online for references talked about throughout the session and different assets related to the dialogue, and publish the URLs within the textual content chat
  • Contextualizers: add two or three sentences of contextual description for every URL
  • Summarizers: word details made via textual content chat.
  • Lexicographers: establish and collaboratively outline phrases and phrases on a wiki web page.
  • Mappers: maintain observe of high stage and secondary stage classes and assist the group mindmapping train on the finish of the session.
  • Curators: compile the summaries, hyperlinks to the lexicon and mindmaps, contextualized assets, on a single wiki web page.
  • Emergent Agendas: utilizing the whiteboard for nameless nomination and choice polling for agenda objects, with voice, video, and text-chat channels for discussing nominations, a bunch can shortly set its personal agenda for the real-time session.

The Paragogical Motion Evaluate[edit]

Charlie Danoff and Joe Corneli remixed the US Military’s “After Motion Evaluate” to make a way for evaluating peer studying because it occurs. The 5 steps within the PAR are:

  1. Evaluate what was imagined to occur
  2. Set up what is occurring/occurred
  3. Decide what’s proper and unsuitable with what we’re doing/have executed
  4. What did we be taught or change?
  5. What else ought to we modify going ahead?

Individuals can run via these steps throughout reside conferences to reassess the medium, the readings, the group dynamics, or another decisions which have studying relevance. The main focus within the PAR is on change: as such, it offers a easy solution to implement the “double loop studying” of Chris Argris (see references).


  1. Argyris, Chris. “Instructing sensible folks the way to be taught.” Harvard Enterprise Evaluate, 69.3, 1991.
  2. Charles Jeffrey Danoff, Joseph Corneli, and Dr. Muhammed Bello Umar, The Paragogical Motion Evaluate, submitted to The African Journal of Info Methods.


This web page is for individuals who wish to assist develop/enhance this handbook.

Illustrations by Amanda Lyons.

Whats up and welcome![edit]

The peeragogy mission was kicked off across the time of Howard Rheingold’s January 23, 2012 Regents Lecture at UC Berkeley on Social Media and Peer Studying: From Mediated Pedagogy to Peeragogy. We’ve put collectively a handbook about peer studying: you are studying it — possibly on [website], or in your hammock with the beverage of your selection and our print on demand paperback. Or possibly you grabbed our free PDF or another remixed model in another format or taste from another place (which might be cool!).

However: there’s nonetheless extra work to be executed. We created this web page since you may be eager about getting concerned in enhancing the guide or furthering the mission in different methods. In that case, we’re pleased to have you ever aboard!

What you do right here is essentially as much as you.

The aim we take into account for our guide is for it’s a helpful information to see studying! To realize that aim we take into account a number of alternatives for friends to contribute:

  • We’re notably eager about case research about Peeragogy in Motion!
  • Arrange a workforce to deal with a bigger part or subject.
  • Make a video (like these on our YouTube Channel),
  • Take notes of reside conferences, or develop idea maps,
  • Arrange a e-newsletter to your group or the entire workforce,
  • Add normal objective bookmarks or submit feedback and editorial notes about on this one; and
  • Focus on peer studying issues and this handbook informally with us and with others!

We commonly use Google+, Google Hangouts, boards, and electronic mail to speak asynchronously and just about repeatedly. We additionally meet irregularly as a bunch for synchronous audio-video classes. Additional particulars about all these strategies of communication will be discovered under.

In brief: this is the way it works:

Abstract: Methods we Talk[edit]

FORUMS AND WIKI – The mission bought began within the Social Media Classroom hosted by Howard at Howard Rheingold College. To make use of this useful resource, you may have to contact Howard by way of the e-mail tackle above, and he’ll create a login for you. This technique is asynchronous (you possibly can take part everytime you’d like). There are many previous conversations within the boards that you would be able to learn to see how the neighborhood of peeragogy handbook creators shaped — and you may add your personal voice. You will discover prolonged discussions of points and choices raised in reside classes.

GOOGLE+ COMMUNITY – We created the “Peeragogy in Motion” neighborhood as a spot to assemble tales about how persons are making use of peeragogy strategies. We’re additionally utilizing it to coordinate work on the Peeragogy Undertaking itself. Be at liberty to hitch us!

LIVE SESSIONS – We meet synchronously at agreed-upon instances, utilizing audio, video, textual content chat, slides, screen-sharing. For teams of ten or extra, we use Blackboard Collaborate, for which Howard has a 50-seat-at-a-time license. These classes are recorded. For details about scheduling, and recordings, see the discussion board subject. Participation requires a reasonably quick (broadband) Web connection, a microphone or headset, and (if you want), a webcam. For teams of ten or smaller (often for mission groups), we use Google+ Hangouts. Particular person groups do their very own scheduling.

TWITTER LIST – Observe @Peeragogy & to get added to the Peeragogy Twitter checklist please submit your Twitter identify right here. Stephanie Schipper will then add you.

TWITTER HASHTAG: #peeragogy We also have a FACEBOOK PAGE. questions_1000


In case you have questions, that is good! Submit a touch upon this web page

e have been writing the lacking guide for peer-produced peer studying – the “Peeragogy Handbook” ( All through the constructing of this work, we, ourselves peer learners on this quest, have been conscious of those 4 questions:

  1. How does a motivated group of self-learners select a topic or ability to be taught?
  2. How can this group establish and choose the perfect studying assets about that subject?
  3. How will these learners establish and choose the suitable know-how and communications instruments and platforms to perform their studying aim?
  4. What does the group have to find out about studying concept and apply to place collectively a profitable peer-learning program?

It’s clear to us that the strategies of peer manufacturing which have constructed and proceed to enhance Wikipedia and GNU/Linux have but to totally show their energy in schooling. We imagine that the Peeragogy Handbook might help change that by constructing a distributed neighborhood of peer learners/educators, and a strongly vetted assortment of finest practices. Our mission enhances others’ work on websites like Wikiversity and P2PU, and builds upon understandings which have developed informally in distributed communities of hobbyists and professionals, in addition to in (and past) the lecture rooms of generations of passionate educators. Right here, we current Peeragogy in Motion, a mission information in 4 elements. Every half pertains to a number of sections of our handbook, and suggests actions to strive when you discover peer studying. These actions are designed for versatile use by broadly distributed teams, collaborating by way of a lightweight infrastructure. Individuals could also be educators, neighborhood organizers, designers, hackers, dancers, college students, seasoned peeragogues, or first-timers. The information needs to be helpful for teams who wish to construct a powerful collaboration, in addition to to facilitators or theorists who wish to hone their apply or method. Collectively, we are going to use our numerous skills to construct efficient strategies and fashions for peer produced peer studying. Let’s get began! File:Http://

Setting the preliminary problem and constructing a framework for accountability amongst individuals is a crucial start line.

Exercise – Provide you with a plan to your work and an settlement, or casual contract, to your group. You should use the options on this information as a place to begin, however your first job is to revise the plan to fit your wants. It may be useful to ask: What are you curious about studying? What’s your major meant consequence? What drawback do you hope to resolve? How collaborative does your mission must be? How will the individuals’ experience within the subject range? What kind of help will you and different individuals require? What issues received’t you remedy?

Know-how – Familiarize your self with the collaboration instruments you plan to make use of (e.g. WordPress, Git and LaTeX, YouTube, GIMP, a public wiki, a personal discussion board, or one thing else) and create a primary submit, edit, or video introducing your self and your mission(s) to others within the worldwide peeragogy neighborhood.

Recommended Sources – The Peeragogy Handbook, elements I (‘Introduction’) and II (‘Peer Studying’). You might also wish to work via a brief lesson known as Implementing Paragogy, from the early days earlier than the Peeragogy mission was convened. For a succinct theoretical remedy, please consult with our literature evaluate, which we’ve got tailored right into a Wikipedia web page.

Additional Studying – Boud, D. and Lee, A. (2005). ‘Peer studying’ as pedagogic discourse for analysis schooling. Research in Larger Schooling, 30(5):501–516.

Observations from the Peeragogy mission – We had a reasonably weak mission construction on the outset, which yielded blended outcomes. One participant mentioned: “I undoubtedly assume I do higher when introduced with a framework or scaffold to make use of for participation or content material improvement.” But the identical particular person wrote with enthusiasm about fashions of entrepreneurship, saying she was “freed of the requirement or want for an entrepreneurial visionary.” In brief,


Different folks can help you in attaining your aim and make the work extra enjoyable too.

Exercise – Write an invite to somebody who might help as a co-facilitator in your mission. Make clear what you hope to be taught from them and what your mission has to supply. Useful questions to think about: What assets can be found or lacking? What do you have already got that you would be able to construct on? How will you discover the mandatory assets? Who else is eager about these sorts of challenges? The 2 of you need to be capable to give you a decent checklist.

Know-how – Establish instruments that would doubtlessly be helpful throughout the mission, even when it is new to you. Begin studying the way to use them. Join with folks in different locales who share related pursuits or know the instruments.

Recommended assets – The Peeragogy Handbook, elements III (‘Convening a Group’) and IV (‘Organizing a Studying Context’).

Really useful Studying – Schmidt, J. Philipp. (2009). Commons-Primarily based Peer Manufacturing and schooling. Free Tradition Analysis Workshop Harvard College, 23 October 2009.

Observations from the Peeragogy mission – We used a method of “open enrollment.” New folks had been welcome to hitch the mission at any time. We additionally inspired folks to both keep concerned or withdraw; a number of instances over the previous yr, we required individuals to explicitly reaffirm curiosity with the intention to keep registered within the discussion board and mailing checklist. This selection lower down on the distraction of questioning if inactive members would reconnect. Nonetheless, the mission continued to build up content material, which gave some newcomers the discouraging feeling that there was an excessive amount of to atone for. Those that ended up being the most efficient dove proper in and did not fear about making errors. Probably the most energetic members had been gracious and affected person with the newcomers – an necessary high quality in profitable peer-learning facilitators.


Solidifying your work plan and studying technique along with concrete measures for ‘success’ can transfer the mission ahead considerably. Working in groups and sharing info with others will aid you to develop your mission.

Exercise – Distill your concepts by writing an essay, making visible sketches, or creating a brief video to speak the distinctive plans for group and analysis that your group will use. By this time, you need to have recognized which points of the mission must be refined or expanded. Dive in!

Know-how – Take time to mentor others or be mentored by somebody, assembly up in particular person or on-line. Pair up with another person and share data collectively about a number of instruments. You’ll be able to focus on a few of the difficulties that you just’ve encountered, or train a newbie some methods.

Recommended assets – The Peeragogy Handbook, elements V (‘Co-Facilitation and Co-Working’), VI (‘Evaluation’), and half VII (‘Patterns, Use instances, and Examples’).

Really useful studying – Argyris, Chris. “Instructing sensible folks the way to be taught.” Harvard Enterprise Evaluate 69.3 (1991); and, Gersick, Connie J.G. “Time and transition in work groups: Towards a brand new mannequin of group improvement.” Academy of Administration Journal 31.1 (1988): 9-41.

Observations from the Peeragogy mission – Maybe one of the vital necessary roles within the Peeragogy mission was the function of the ‘Wrapper’, who ready and circulated weekly summaries of discussion board exercise. This helped folks keep knowledgeable about what was occurring within the mission even when they didn’t have time to learn the boards. We’ve additionally discovered that small teams of people that prepare their very own conferences are sometimes the most efficient.


Wrap up the mission with a important evaluation of progress and instructions for future work. Share any adjustments to this syllabus that you just assume could be helpful for future peeragogues!

Exercise – Establish the primary obstacles you encountered. What are some objectives you weren’t capable of accomplish but? Did you foresee these challenges on the outset? How did this mission resemble or differ from others you’ve labored on? How would you do issues in another way in future initiatives? What would you wish to deal with subsequent?

Writing – Talk your reflection case. Put together a brief written or multimedia essay, coping with your experiences on this course. Share the outcomes by posting it the place others within the broader Peeragogy mission can discover it.

‘Further credit score’ – Contribute again to one of many different organisations or initiatives that helped you on this peeragogical journey. Take into consideration what you must provide. Is it a bug repair, a constructive critique, photos, translation assist, PR, wiki-gnoming or making a cake? Make it one thing particular, and folks will bear in mind you and thanks for it.

Recommended assets – The Peeragogy Handbook, elements VIII (‘Applied sciences, Companies, and Platforms’) and IX (‘Sources’).

Really useful studying – Stallman, Richard. “Why software program needs to be free” (1992).

Observations from the Peeragogy mission – Once we had been deciding the way to license our work, numerous Inventive Commons licences had been proposed (CC Zero, CC By-SA and CC By-SA-NC). After a quick dialogue, nobody was in favor of limiting downstream customers, so we determined to make use of CC0. In reference to this dialogue, we agreed that we might work on methods to explicitly construct ‘re-usability’ into the handbook content material.

Micro-Case Examine: The Peeragogy Undertaking, 12 months 1[edit]

Since its conception in early 2012, the Peeragogy Undertaking has collected over 3700 feedback in our dialogue discussion board, and over 200 pages of expository textual content within the handbook. It has given contributors a brand new mind-set about issues collectively. Nonetheless, the mission has not had the degrees of engagement that needs to be potential, given the know-how out there, the worldwide curiosity in enhancing schooling, and the variety of thoughful individuals who expressed curiosity. We hope that the handbook and this accompanying syllabus will present a seed for a brand new part of studying, with many new contributors and new concepts drawn from real-life purposes.

Preserve it quick[edit]

The simplest sections to learn are these which might be shorter and embrace some sort of visible (video or picture) and have some private connection (i.e. they inform a narrative). For something longer, break it up into sub-pages, add visuals, be sure that every sub-page is accessible to somebody (who’s it?). Assume clearly of this reader, speak to them.

Make it clear[edit]

We’ll illustrate this level by instance. The unique full title of the guide was “The Peeragogy Handbook: A useful resource for self-organizing self-learners”. However “self-organizing” is a technical time period, and “self-learner” is a complicated neologism. We should not use technical phrases until we clarify them. So we actually should not use it within the first sentence or paragraph, or title, of the guide as a result of we’ll scare folks off or confuse them. If we wish to clarify what “self-organization” means and why it’s related for peeragogy, then we are able to take a chapter to try this a lot afterward within the guide. On the similar time, we should not attempt to “say the identical factor in an easier means.” We should always attempt to do away with the technical idea fully and see what’s left. The simplest factor to do in such instances is to delete the sentence fully and begin over: when unsure, converse plainly.

Do not overdo it with bullet factors[edit]

Perhaps that is only a “pet peeve”, however I discover textual content very arduous to learn when there are quite a lot of bullet factors included. For me, it really works higher when the bullet factors are changed with numbered lists (which ought to nonetheless be used sparingly). It additionally appears that when many disjointed bullet factors seem, generally the creator is de facto simply indexing the details which might be introduced higher in another person’s narrative. Due to this fact, take into account changing a complete bulleted checklist with a reference to another person’s guide/webpage/chapter. In at present’s hyperlinked world, it is easy sufficient for the reader to go elsewhere to get good content material (and certainly, we should always make it straightforward for them to seek out the perfect remedies round!). Specifically, it isn’t solely nice to learn a taxonomy. Perhaps that type of factor will be moved into an appendix if we have to have it.

Embody actions[edit]

In at present’s reside assembly, we agreed that actions wouldn’t magically remedy all potential usability/readability issues, however they’re good to have anyway. And, in accordance with our web page format, every chapter ought to have a minimum of one exercise (linked to from the sidebar). So, when studying the guide, please make word of any exercise that may be included. (Additionally make word of issues that will not be solved by including actions!)

Do not be overly chatty[edit]

In our efforts to flee from academia-speak and simplify the textual content within the handbook, it is necessary to verify we aren’t heading in the direction of the opposite excessive — being too conversational. Once we’re having a dialog with somebody, we are inclined to pepper our concepts with transitional or pivotal phrases (“In any occasion,” “With that mentioned,” “As I discussed elsewhere,” and so on.) that assist to maintain the speak flowing. We additionally go off on transient tangents earlier than making our means again to the primary subject, and generally categorical ourselves in run-on sentences. Whereas that is completely pure in speech, it may be complicated and complicated when being learn (in our handbook or elsewhere). Let’s keep acutely aware of our viewers and attempt to meet that good steadiness of easy, but skilled in our writing.

Extra fashion bonus factors[edit]

  • Keep away from double areas after paragraphs; this can be a leftover from the age of typewriters and may create “rivers” of white area.
  • Capitalize the primary phrase of every merchandise in a bulleted checklist, particularly if objects embrace a verb type (this checklist and the one above are examples!).
  • Capitalize the primary phrase of headings and subheadings; decrease case all others.

Bryan Alexander, Paul Allison, Régis Barondeau,Doug Breitbart, Suz Burroughs, Joseph Corneli,Jay Cross, Charles Jeffrey Danoff, Julian Elve,María Fernanda, James Folkestad, Kathy Gill,Gigi Johnson, Anna Keune, Roland Legrand,Amanda Lyons, Christopher Neal, Ted Newcomb,Stephanie Parker, Charloe Pierce, David Preston,Howard Rheingold, Paola Ricaurte, Stephanie Schipper, Fabrizio Terzi, and Geoff Walker

Authors & Contributors[edit]

Plenty of individuals not listed under have additionally made necessary contributions to this guide.

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