Permaculture Design/Soil – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

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  • Water and Air 50%
  • Minerals 40%
  • Biology 5%
  • Solar
  • Water
  • Temperature (Proper plant for circumstances or construct micro climates)
  • Shelter design (you must be capable of see by means of your shelter belt)
  • Soil compaction
  • Breakages (human and animal motion, incorrect pruning, wind fall)
  • Competitors and companion vegetation
  • Range
  • Pests and predators
  • Stability the mineral content material (Bodily, clay, sand, salt and all components)
  • Guarantee right soil biology organisms
  • Feed soil biology
  • Colourless/white: excessive silica content material
  • Gentle/white: lack of oxygen; leached; excessive calcium; alkaline ph
  • Yellow: lack of oxygen; excessive clay content material; aluminium & iron
  • Pink: iron oxide
  • Pink/brown: volcanic basalt origin; iron & magnesium
  • Black: wealthy in natural matter & vitamins; holds moisture


  • Azalea, dandelion: acid soils; normally leached; typically compacted.
  • Berries, conifers, dock: Poor drainage
  • Saltbush, spinifex: alkaline; saline; dry soils
  • clovers, vetch, nettles: extra nitrogen; low humus content material; low micr-organism content material
  • blackberries: open disturbed soil, presumably acid
  • bracken: current hearth; normal decline in soil fertility.
  • buttercup: poor drainage, acid.
  • thistles: low calcium & iron content material; onerous soils.
  • chicory, chickweed: good fertility

Mother or father Materials[edit]

Eg soils derived from:

  • Sandstone: sandy, excessive silica.
  • Shale: clay; excessive silica & iron.
  • Basalt: excessive iron & magnesium.
  • Bitter: Lacks oxygen, acidic, sulphur dioxide
  • Candy & earthy: excessive oxygen, good soil life & OM
  • Garlic: arsenic in soil (or perhaps theres some onion weed close by!)
  • Clean & slippery: acidic, soil water lathers simply
  • Weak soda: alkaline/mineral; gained’t lather simply
  • Worms: good moisture, OM, low pesticide residues
  • Ants: drier, sandy
  • Slugs & snails: damp, decomposing plant & animal materials.
  • Skinks & lizards: heat sunny, dry spots, good insect populations
  • Run –off: is elevated by naked floor, compaction, steep slopes
  • Repels water: compacted, eroded, extreme use of dolomite, little or no OM, sandy & allowed to dry out & has fashioned a moisture resistant barrier
  • Shrinks & swells: excessive clay, holds water, cracks.
  • Quick draining ( gap crammed with water, drains inside 10minutes: erodes simply, collapses simply, few fungal ailments, good motion of water & soil life. Not good for dams.

Historical past[edit]

  • Naked floor: agricultural or industrial contamination.
  • Progress in poor soils: earlier buildings, compaction, outdated poultry or animal pen web site
  • No topsoil: quarry or fill web site, erosion.
  • Unhealthy cracks & garbage: outdated tip or landfill web site

Crops and soil minerals[edit]

Usually vegetation which develop in poor soils have the power to pay attention these lacking components of their construction.

  • Potassium current: marshmallow, knapweed, wormwood, opium poppy, fumitory, tansy & borage.
  • Poor: pink clover. Celery & leek like potassium. Chicory is pot. wealthy.
  • Calcium: buckwheat grown as a inexperienced manure or composted provides. Melon leaves are a supply of it & oak bark is very wealthy all thistles & willow. Dandelion “mines” it . Peas, beans, brassicas & turnips want it.
  • Phosphorous: bracken signifies an absence of & accumulates it. Burn it & unfold the ashes. Valerian & comfrey are wealthy sources. Whitefly signifies a deficiency together with magnesium. Brassicas want it to move effectively.
  • Iron: blackberry is a wealthy supply.
  • Magnesium & sulphur: broom, salad burnett, plantain, & sheep sorrel (for magnesium)
  • Ragwort: copper
  • Thistles: nitrogen, copper & silicon.
  • Search for indicator vegetation which can inform issues about Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potasium
  • Take a look at leaves for indicators of deficiencies or excesses (Permaculture Designers Handbook has a easy key to comply with)
  • Get a soil take a look at carried out
  • E book – The Soul of Soil
  • DCC Web site has soil evaluation maps
  • Speak to folks
  • Do not depend on easy ‘acid’ or ‘alkaline’ measures. The remedy for these could be too simplistic and won’t stability the soil.
Identify Botanical Identify Na I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca Okay P Mn Fe Cu Co
Alfalfa Medicago sativa       x           x    
Arrowroot                   x            
Bladder wrack     x           x         x    
Borage Borago officinalis         x         x          
Bracken, japanese Pteridium aquifolium                   x x x x x x
Bridal bower                       x        
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentums                   x          
Burdock Arctium minus                       x      
Calamus               x     x x        
Carageen   x           x   x            
Caraway Carum carvi                     x        
Carrot leaves Daucus carota               x   x          
Cattail Typha latifolia             x                
Chamomile, corn Anthemis arvensis                 x x          
Chamomile, German Chamomilla recutita                 x x x        
Chickweed Stellaria media                   x x x      


Identify Botanical Identify Na I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca Okay P Mn Fe Cu Co
Chicory Cichorium intybus                 x x          
Chives Allium sp. x               x            
Cleavers Galium aparine x               x            
Clovers Trifolium sp.             x       x        
Clover, hop Medicago lupulina             x       x        
Clover, rabbit foot               x       x        
Clover, pink Trifolium protense             x       x        
Clover, white Trifolium repens             x       x        
Coltsfoot             x   x x x     x x  
Comfrey Symphytum officinale         x   x x x x     x    
Dandelion Taraxacum vulgare x       x     x x x x   x x  
Dock, broad leaved Rumex obtusifolias                 x x x   x    
Dulse   x x           x x       x    
Fats hen Atriplex hastata                   x     x    
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare x           x       x        
Flax, seed Linum usitatissimum                   x          


Identify Botanical Identify Na I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca Okay P Mn Fe Cu Co
Garlic Allium sativum     x     x           x      
Groundsel Senecio vulgaris                         x    
Horsetails Equisetum sp.         x     x x       x   x
Kelp   x x         x x x       x    
Lamb’s quarters Chenopodsum album             x   x x x x      
Lemon Balm Melissa offcinalis                     x        
Lupine Lupinus sp.             x       x        
Marigold, flowers Tagetes sp.                     x        
Meadow candy Astilbe sp. x         x   x x   x   x    
Mistletoe                 x              
Mullein, widespread Verbascum sp.           x   x   x     x    
Mustards Brassica sp.           x         x        
Nettles, stinging Urtica urens x         x x   x x     x x  
Oak, bark Quercus sp. x
Oat Straw x
Parsley x x x x
Peppermint Mentha piperita x x


Identify Botanical Identify Na I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca Okay P Mn Fe Cu Co
Pigweed, pink root Amaranthus retroflexus . x x x x
Plantains Plantago sp. x x x x x x
Primrose Oenothera biennis x
Purslane Portulaca oleracea x x x
Salad burnet Poterium sanguisorba x x x x x
Savory Satureja sp. x
Scarlet Pimpernel Anagallis arvensis x
Shepherd’s purse Capsella bursa-pastoris x x x
Skunk cabbage Navarretia squanosa x
Sorrel, sheep Rumex acetosella x x x
Sow thistle Sonchus arvensis x x x
Spurges Euphorbia sp. x
Strawberry, leaves Fragaria sp. x
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare x
Thistle, Canada Cirsium arvense x
Thistle, creeping Sonchus arvensis x x x


Identify Botanical Identify Na I Fl B Si S N Mg Ca Okay P Mn Fe Cu Co
Thistle, nodding Carduus nutans x
Thistle, Russian Salsola pestifer x
Toadflax Linaria vulgaris x x x
Tobacco, stems/stalk Nicotiana sp. x
Valerian Valeriana ofjicinalis x
Vetches Vicia sp. x x x x x
Watercress Nasturtium ofpcinale x x x x x x x x
Willow, bark Salix sp. x
Yarrow Achilea millefolium x x x x
  • Plant mulch making vegetation ~ comfrey, tree lucerne, grasses for hay, weeds resembling dandelion, plantain, nettles, borage, deciduous timber.
  • Use small prunings as a part of the mulch round your timber. Place them over soil that you must add natural matter to & put grass clippings, weeds, & manure on prime & let nature do the remaining. As soon as its fairly damaged down sow seeds/plant. Good approach to set up an orchard/meals forest.
  • Harvest native assets ~ bracken & chicory are excessive in potassium, add it to your compost, burn it & use the ashes round vegetation resembling, celery & leeks. The brassicas (cabbage, cauli, brocoli) want phosphorous to move up effectively, comfrey & bracken provide it. Ragwort concentrates copper. Broom is excessive in magnesium & sulphur, lupins in nitrogen & calcium. Seaweed has lots of the important hint components that vegetation want. Meals scraps from cafes & tremendous markets.
  • Plant wind breaks to filter air-born air pollution
  • Plant timber & shrubs to take up floor water air pollution e.g alongside a street, runoff out of your nieghbour who makes use of chemical substances.
  • Create moist lands planted with macrophytes ( reeds & rushes) to take up the above air pollution.
  • Use raised beds for rising in.
  • Seaweed, compost & dolomite assist to wash soils of pollution resembling heavy metals.
  • Permit weeds to develop ~ add OM, take up pollution.
  • Unfold rock mud to produce minerals ~ basalt, granite, dolomite.
  • Do not forget that the extra circumstances you create for soil life to thrive the higher your soils shall be. Create variety.
  • Feed the soil and land base and you’ll not directly feed your vegetation
  • Arden Anderson = Soil sciences author and speaker
  • Why is it that vegetation which can be wholesome have a tendency to not be attacked by pests and ailments? Their protection system is unbroken. A plant that’s unhealthy or confused shall be full of easy carbohydrates – which magnetize pests and ailments. Wholesome vegetation have advanced carbohydrates which people require. Due to this fact, nature has a approach to clear up weak techniques.
  • Arden Anderson began to watch a relationship between human illness and crop ailments, due to our industrial productions strategies that stop natures method of cleansing out weak species – and so we’re interrupting our entry to advanced carbohydrates.
  • How then can we guarantee wholesome vegetation?

Issues to do[edit]

  • Compost and unfold or inoculate areas throughout planting 30g per m2
  • Website particular compost fabricated from the supplies of the vegetation being nurtured
  • Biodynamics
  • Apply seaweed and fish 300g per m2
  • three comfry vegetation per fruit tree
  • For some pests think about using micro organisms from [Bokashi] to out compete pests

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