Polycarbonate – Wikipedia

admin 0
Polycarbonate - Wikipedia

Household of polymers

Polycarbonates (PC) are a bunch of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate teams of their chemical buildings. Polycarbonates utilized in engineering are sturdy, robust supplies, and a few grades are optically clear. They’re simply labored, molded, and thermoformed. Due to these properties, polycarbonates discover many purposes. Polycarbonates wouldn’t have a novel resin identification code (RIC) and are recognized as “Different”, 7 on the RIC record. Merchandise comprised of polycarbonate can include the precursor monomer bisphenol A (BPA).


Construction of dicarbonate (PhOC(O)OC6H4 )2CMe2 derived from bis(phenol-A) and two equivalents of phenol.[5] This molecule displays a subunit of a typical polycarbonate derived from bis(phenol-A).

Carbonate esters have planar OC(OC)2 cores, which confers rigidity. The distinctive O=C bond is brief (1.173 Å within the depicted instance), whereas the C-O bonds are extra ether-like (the bond distances of 1.326 Å for the instance depicted). Polycarbonates acquired their title as a result of they’re polymers containing carbonate teams (−O−(C=O)−O−). A stability of helpful options, together with temperature resistance, affect resistance and optical properties, positions polycarbonates between commodity plastics and engineering plastics.


The principle polycarbonate materials is produced by the response of bisphenol A (BPA) and phosgene COCl
. The general response might be written as follows:


Step one of the synthesis entails therapy of bisphenol A with sodium hydroxide, which deprotonates the hydroxyl teams of the bisphenol A.[6]

(HOC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 NaOH → Na2(OC6H4)2CMe2 + 2 H2O

The diphenoxide (Na2(OC6H4)2CMe2) reacts with phosgene to present a chloroformate, which subsequently is attacked by one other phenoxide. The online response from the diphenoxide is:

Na2(OC6H4)2CMe2 + COCl2 → 1/n [OC(OC6H4)2CMe2]n + 2 NaCl

On this manner, roughly one billion kilograms of polycarbonate is produced yearly. Many different diols have been examined rather than bisphenol A, e.g. 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane and dihydroxybenzophenone. The cyclohexane is used as a comonomer to suppress crystallisation tendency of the BPA-derived product. Tetrabromobisphenol A is used to reinforce fireplace resistance. Tetramethylcyclobutanediol has been developed as a alternative for BPA.[6]

Another path to polycarbonates entails transesterification from BPA and diphenyl carbonate:

(HOC6H4)2CMe2 + (C6H5O)2CO → 1/n [OC(OC6H4)2CMe2]n + 2 C6H5OH

The diphenyl carbonate was derived partly from carbon monoxide, this route being greener than the phosgene methodology.[6]

Properties and processing[edit]

Polycarbonate is a sturdy materials. Though it has excessive impact-resistance, it has low scratch-resistance. Due to this fact, a tough coating is utilized to polycarbonate eyewear lenses and polycarbonate exterior automotive parts. The traits of polycarbonate evaluate to these of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic), however polycarbonate is stronger and can maintain up longer to excessive temperature. Polycarbonate is very clear to seen gentle, with higher gentle transmission than many sorts of glass.

Polycarbonate has a glass transition temperature of about 147 °C (297 °F),[7] so it softens regularly above this level and flows above about 155 °C (311 °F).[8] Instruments should be held at excessive temperatures, typically above 80 °C (176 °F) to make strain-free and stress-free merchandise. Low molecular mass grades are simpler to mould than larger grades, however their power is decrease because of this. The hardest grades have the best molecular mass, however are rather more troublesome to course of.

Not like most thermoplastics, polycarbonate can bear giant plastic deformations with out cracking or breaking. Consequently, it may be processed and fashioned at room temperature utilizing sheet steel strategies, resembling bending on a brake. Even for sharp angle bends with a decent radius, heating might not be obligatory. This makes it precious in prototyping purposes the place clear or electrically non-conductive components are wanted, which can’t be comprised of sheet steel. PMMA/Acrylic, which has similarities in look to polycarbonate, is brittle and can’t be bent at room temperature.

Most important transformation strategies for polycarbonate resins:

  • extrusion into tubes, rods and different profiles together with multiwall
  • extrusion with cylinders (calenders) into sheets (0.5–20 mm (0.020–0.787 in)) and movies (beneath 1 mm (0.039 in)), which can be utilized immediately or manufactured into different shapes utilizing thermoforming or secondary fabrication strategies, resembling bending, drilling, or routing. As a result of its chemical properties it’s not conducive to laser-cutting.
  • injection molding into prepared articles

Polycarbonate could grow to be brittle when uncovered to ionizing radiation above 25 kGy (J/kg).[9]

A bottle comprised of polycarbonate


Digital parts[edit]

Polycarbonate is especially used for digital purposes that capitalize on its collective security options. Being an excellent electrical insulator and having heat-resistant and flame-retardant properties, it’s utilized in numerous merchandise related to electrical and telecommunications {hardware}. It may possibly additionally function a dielectric in high-stability capacitors.[6] Nonetheless, industrial manufacture of polycarbonate capacitors principally stopped after sole producer Bayer AG stopped making capacitor-grade polycarbonate movie on the finish of yr 2000.[10][11]

Building supplies[edit]

Polycarbonate sheeting in a greenhouse

The second largest shopper of polycarbonates is the development trade, e.g. for domelights, flat or curved glazing, roofing sheets and sound partitions.

Information storage[edit]

A significant software of polycarbonate is the manufacturing of Compact Discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs. These discs are produced by injection molding polycarbonate right into a mould cavity that has on one facet a steel stamper containing a adverse picture of the disc information, whereas the opposite mould facet is a mirrored floor. Typical merchandise of sheet/movie manufacturing embrace purposes in commercial (indicators, shows, poster safety).[6]

Automotive, plane, and safety parts[edit]

Within the automotive trade, injection-molded polycarbonate can produce very easy surfaces that make it well-suited for sputter deposition or evaporation deposition of aluminium with out the necessity for a base-coat. Ornamental bezels and optical reflectors are generally made from polycarbonate.
As a result of its low weight and excessive affect resistance, polycarbonate is the dominant materials for making automotive headlamp lenses. Nonetheless, automotive headlamps require outer floor coatings due to its low scratch resistance and susceptibility to ultraviolet degradation (yellowing).
The usage of polycarbonate in automotive purposes is restricted to low stress purposes. Stress from fasteners, plastic welding and molding render polycarbonate prone to emphasize corrosion cracking when it is available in contact with sure accelerants resembling salt water and plastisol.
It may be laminated to make bullet-proof “glass”, though “bullet-resistant” is extra correct for the thinner home windows, resembling are utilized in bullet-resistant home windows in cars. The thicker obstacles of clear plastic utilized in teller’s home windows and obstacles in banks are additionally polycarbonate.

So-called “theft-proof” giant plastic packaging for smaller objects, which can’t be opened by hand, is uniformly comprised of polycarbonate.

Lockheed Martin F-22 cockpit cover

The cockpit cover of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor jet fighter is comprised of a chunk of excessive optical high quality polycarbonate, and is the biggest piece of its sort fashioned on the planet.[12][13]

Area of interest purposes[edit]

Polycarbonate, being a flexible materials with enticing processing and bodily properties, has attracted myriad smaller purposes. The usage of injection molded consuming bottles, glasses and meals containers is frequent, however using BPA within the manufacture of polycarbonate has stirred issues (see Potential hazards in meals contact purposes), resulting in improvement and use of “BPA-free” plastics in numerous formulations.

Laboratory security goggles

Polycarbonate is usually utilized in eye safety, in addition to in different projectile-resistant viewing and lighting purposes that will usually point out using glass, however require a lot larger impact-resistance. Polycarbonate lenses additionally defend the attention from UV gentle. Many sorts of lenses are manufactured from polycarbonate, together with automotive headlamp lenses, lighting lenses, sunglass/eyeglass lenses, swimming goggles and SCUBA masks, and security glasses/goggles/visors together with visors in sporting helmets/masks and police riot gear (helmet visors, riot shields, and many others.). Windscreens in small motorized automobiles are generally made from polycarbonate, resembling for bikes, ATVs, golf carts, and small airplanes and helicopters.

The sunshine weight of polycarbonate versus glass has led to improvement of digital show screens that substitute glass with polycarbonate, to be used in cell and transportable gadgets. Such shows embrace newer e-ink and a few LCD screens, although CRT, plasma display screen and different LCD applied sciences typically nonetheless require glass for its larger melting temperature and its potential to be etched in finer element.

As increasingly more governments are limiting using glass in pubs and golf equipment because of the elevated incidence of glassings, polycarbonate glasses have gotten common for serving alcohol due to their power, sturdiness, and glass-like really feel.[14][15]

Different miscellaneous objects embrace sturdy, light-weight baggage, MP3/digital audio participant instances, ocarinas, laptop instances, riot shields, instrument panels, tealight candle containers and meals blender jars. Many toys and pastime objects are comprised of polycarbonate components, like fins, gyro mounts, and flybar locks in radio-controlled helicopters,[16] and clear LEGO (ABS is used for opaque items).[17]

Normal polycarbonate resins aren’t appropriate for long run publicity to UV radiation. To beat this the first resin can have UV stabilisers added. These grades are offered as UV stabilized polycarbonate to injection moulding and extrusion firms. Different purposes, together with polycarbonate sheet, could have the anti-UV layer added as a particular coating or a coextrusion for enhanced weathering resistance.

Polycarbonate can be used as a printing substrate for nameplate and different types of industrial grade beneath printed merchandise. The polycarbonate offers a barrier to put on, the weather, and fading.

Medical purposes[edit]

Many polycarbonate grades are utilized in medical purposes and adjust to each ISO 10993-1 and USP Class VI requirements (often known as PC-ISO). Class VI is essentially the most stringent of the six USP rankings. These grades might be sterilized utilizing steam at 120 °C, gamma radiation, or by the ethylene oxide (EtO) methodology.[18] Dow Chemical strictly limits all its plastics with regard to medical purposes.[19][20] Aliphatic polycarbonates have been developed with improved biocompatibility and degradability for nanomedicine purposes.[21]

Cell phones[edit]

Some main smartphone producers use polycarbonate. Nokia used polycarbonate of their telephones beginning with the N9’s unibody case in 2011. This apply continued with numerous telephones within the Lumia collection. Samsung has began utilizing polycarbonate with Galaxy S III’s hyperglaze-branded detachable battery cowl in 2012. This apply continues with numerous telephones within the Galaxy collection. Apple began utilizing polycarbonate with the iPhone 5C’s unibody case in 2013.

Advantages over glass and steel again covers embrace sturdiness in opposition to shattering (weak spot of glass), bending and scratching (weak spot of steel), shock absorption, low manufacturing prices, and no interference with radio alerts and wi-fi charging (weak spot of steel). Its sturdiness offers it essentially the most potential to be designed detachable.[22]

Two distinct kinds of polycarbonate again covers are these with shiny and matte floor texture. The previous type is used on gadgets such because the Samsung Galaxy S3, Observe 2, S4, whereas the latter type is used on Samsung Galaxy Observe 3, Observe 4 (synthetic leather-based texture), S5 (dotted texture) and Nokia Lumia 1020 (plain matte texture).[22]

Historical past[edit]

Polycarbonates had been first found in 1898 by Alfred Einhorn, a German scientist working on the College of Munich.[23] Nonetheless, after 30 years of laboratory analysis, this class of supplies was deserted with out commercialization. Analysis resumed in 1953, when Hermann Schnell at Bayer in Uerdingen, Germany patented the primary linear polycarbonate. The model title “Makrolon” was registered in 1955.[24]

Additionally in 1953, and one week after the invention at Bayer, Daniel Fox at Basic Electrical in Schenectady, New York, independently synthesized a branched polycarbonate. Each firms filed for U.S. patents in 1955, and agreed that the corporate missing precedence could be granted a license to the expertise.[25][26]

Patent precedence was resolved in Bayer’s favor, and Bayer started industrial manufacturing beneath the commerce title Makrolon in 1958. GE started manufacturing beneath the title Lexan in 1960, creating the GE Plastics division in 1973.[27]

After 1970, the unique brownish polycarbonate tint was improved to “glass-clear.”

Potential hazards in meals contact purposes[edit]

The usage of polycarbonate containers for the aim of meals storage is controversial. The idea of this controversy is their hydrolysis (degradation by water, sometimes called leaching) occurring at excessive temperature, releases bisphenol A:

1/n [OC(OC6H4)2CMe2]n + H2O → (HOC6H4)2CMe2 + CO2

Greater than 100 research have explored the bioactivity of bisphenol A derived from polycarbonates. Bisphenol A gave the impression to be launched from polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature and it could have been chargeable for enlargement of the reproductive organs of feminine mice.[28] Nonetheless, the animal cages used within the analysis had been fabricated from industrial grade polycarbonate, fairly than FDA meals grade polycarbonate.

An evaluation of the literature on bisphenol A leachate low-dose results by vom Saal and Hughes revealed in August 2005 appears to have discovered a suggestive correlation between the supply of funding and the conclusion drawn. Trade-funded research have a tendency to search out no vital results whereas government-funded research have a tendency to search out vital results.[29]

Sodium hypochlorite bleach and different alkali cleaners catalyze the discharge of the bisphenol A from polycarbonate containers.[30][31] A chemical compatibility chart exhibits that polycarbonate is incompatible with ammonia and acetone as a result of it dissolves of their presence.[32]Alcohol is one beneficial natural solvent for cleansing grease and oils from polycarbonate.

Environmental affect[edit]


Research have proven that at temperatures above 70 °C, and excessive humidity, polycarbonate will hydrolyze to Bis-phenol A (BPA). This situation is much like that noticed in most incinerators. After about 30 days at 85 °C / 96% RH, floor crystals are fashioned which for 70% consisted of BPA.[33] BPA is a compound that’s at present on the record of potential environmental hazardous chemical substances. It’s on the watch record of many international locations, resembling United States and Germany.[34]

-(-OC6H4)2C(CH3)2CO-)-n + H2O

{displaystyle longrightarrow }

(CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 + CO2

The leaching of BPA from polycarbonate also can happen at environmental temperature and regular pH (in landfills).The quantity of leaching will increase because the discs grow old. A research discovered that the decomposition of BPA in landfills (beneath anaerobic circumstances) won’t happen.[34] It would due to this fact be persistent in landfills. Finally, it can discover its manner into water our bodies and contribute to aquatic air pollution.[34][35]

Picture-oxidation of polycarbonate[edit]

Within the presence of UV gentle, oxidation of this polymer yields compounds resembling ketones, phenols, o-phenoxybenzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and different unsaturated compounds. This has been advised by way of kinetic and spectral research. The yellow colour fashioned after lengthy publicity to solar will also be associated to additional oxidation of phenolic finish group[36]

(OC6H4)2C(CH3)2CO )n + O2 , R* → (OC6H4)2C(CH3CH2)CO)n

This product might be additional oxidized to kind smaller unsaturated compounds. This could proceed by way of two completely different pathways, the merchandise fashioned relies on which mechanism takes place.

Pathway A

(OC6H4)2C(CH3CH2)CO + O2, H*

{displaystyle longrightarrow }


Pathway B

(OC6H4)2C(CH3CH2)CO)n + O2, H*

{displaystyle longrightarrow }


Picture-oxidation response.[37]

Picture-aging response[edit]

Picture-aging is one other degradation route for polycarbonates. Polycarbonate molecules (such because the fragrant ring) take in UV radiation. This absorbed vitality causes cleavage of covalent bonds which initiates the photo-aging course of. The response might be propagated by way of facet chain oxidation, ring oxidation or photo-Fries rearrangement. Merchandise fashioned embrace phenyl salicylate, dihydroxybenzophenone teams, and hydroxydiphenyl ether teams.[36][38][39]


{displaystyle longrightarrow }

C16H17O3 + C13H10O3

Polycarbonate Phenyl salicylate 2,2-dihydroxybenzophenone

Thermal degradation[edit]

Waste polycarbonate will degrade at excessive temperatures to kind strong, liquid and gaseous pollution. A research confirmed that the merchandise had been about 40–50 wt.% liquid, 14–16 wt.% gases, whereas 34–43 wt.% remained as strong residue. Liquid merchandise contained primarily phenol derivatives (∼75wt.%) and bisphenol (∼10wt.%) additionally current.[38] Polycarbonate, nevertheless, might be safely recycled as a carbon supply in steel-making trade.[40]

Phenol derivatives are environmental pollution, categorized as unstable natural compounds (VOC). Research present they’re more likely to facilitate floor degree ozone formation and improve photo-chemical smog.[41] In aquatic our bodies, they will doubtlessly accumulate in organisms. They’re persistent in landfills, don’t readily evaporate and would stay within the ambiance.[42]

Impact of fungi[edit]

In 2001 a species of fungus in Belize, Geotrichum candidum, was discovered to devour the polycarbonate present in compact discs (CD).[43] This has prospects for bioremediation.

See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ “Lexan sheet technical handbook” (PDF). SABIC. 2009. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
  2. ^ Parvin, M. & Williams, J. G. (1975). “The impact of temperature on the fracture of polycarbonate”. Journal of Supplies Science. 10 (11): 1883. Bibcode:1975JMatS..10.1883P. doi:10.1007/BF00754478. S2CID 135645940.
  3. ^ Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A. (2003). “Characterization of the thermophysical properties of molten polymers and liquids utilizing the flash method” (PDF). Excessive Temperatures-Excessive Pressures. 35/36 (6): 627. doi:10.1068/htjr144.
  4. ^ CES Edupack 2010, Polycarbonate (PC) specs sheet
  5. ^ Perez, Serge; Scaringe, Raymond P. (1987). “Crystalline options of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenylbis(phenyl carbonate) and conformational evaluation of the polycarbonate of two,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane”. Macromolecules. 20 (1): 68–77. Bibcode:1987MaMol..20…68P. doi:10.1021/ma00167a014.
  6. ^ a b c d e Volker Serini “Polycarbonates” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_207
  7. ^ Solutions to Frequent Questions on Bayer Polycarbonate Resins. bayermaterialsciencenafta.com
  8. ^ “Polycarbonate”. metropolis plastics. Archived from the unique on 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
  9. ^ David W. Plester B.SC. A.R.I.C. (1973). “The Results of Radiation Sterilization on Plastics” (PDF): 9. S2CID 18798850. Archived (PDF) from the unique on July 12, 2018. Retrieved 2016-04-22. Polycarbonate can satisfactorily be given a single-dose sterilization publicity (22) however tends to grow to be brittle a lot above 2.5 Mrad.
  10. ^ “Movie”. execpc.com.
  11. ^ “WIMA”. wima.com. Archived from the unique on June 12, 2017.
  12. ^ Egress technicians hold raptor pilots lined. Pacaf.af.mil. Retrieved on 2011-02-26.
  13. ^ F-22 Cockpit. Globalsecurity.org (2008-01-21). Retrieved on 2011-02-26.
  14. ^ Alcohol restrictions for violent venues. The State of Queensland (Division of Justice and Lawyer-Basic)
  15. ^ Ban on common glass in licensed premises. The State of Queensland (Division of Justice and Lawyer-Basic)
  16. ^ “RDLohr’s Clearly Superior Merchandise” (PDF). wavelandps.com. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 1 April 2010.
  17. ^ Linda Jablanski (2015-03-31). “Which Plastic Materials is Utilized in Lego Units?”. Archived from the unique on 2017-03-05.CS1 maint: unfit URL (hyperlink)
  18. ^ Powell, Douglas G. (September 1998). “Medical Functions of Polycarbonate”. Medical Plastics and Biomaterials Journal. Archived from the unique on 23 February 1999.
  19. ^ “Dow Plastics Medical Software Coverage”. Plastics.dow.com. Archived from the unique on February 9, 2010.
  20. ^ “Makrolon Polycarbonate Biocompatibility Grades”. Archived from the unique on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
  21. ^ Chan, Julian M. W.; Ke, Xiyu; Sardon, Haritz; Engler, Amanda C.; Yang, Yi Yan; Hedrick, James L. (2014). “Chemically Modifiable N-Heterocycle-Functionalized Polycarbonates as a Platform for Various Sensible Biomimetic Nanomaterials”. Chemical Science. 5 (8): 3294–3300. doi:10.1039/C4SC00789A.
  22. ^ a b “Construct supplies: steel vs glass vs plastic”. Android Authority. 19 July 2018.
  23. ^ “Polycarbonate (PC)”. UL Prospector. Retrieved 5 Might 2014.
  24. ^ Philip Kotler; Waldemar Pfoertsch (17 Might 2010). Ingredient Branding: Making the Invisible Seen. Springer Science & Enterprise Media. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-3-642-04214-0.
  25. ^ “Polycarbonate is Polyfunctional”. Chemical Institute of Canada. Archived from the unique on 5 Might 2014. Retrieved 5 Might 2014.
  26. ^ Jerome T. Coe (27 August 2010). “Lexan Polycarbonate: 1953–1968”. Unlikely Victory: How Basic Electrical Succeeded within the Chemical Trade. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 71–77. ISBN 978-0-470-93547-7.
  27. ^ “Basic Electrical to Promote Plastics Division”. NY Occasions. 2007-05-22. Retrieved 2020-07-21.
  28. ^ Howdeshell, KL; Peterman PH; Judy BM; Taylor JA; Orazio CE; Ruhlen RL; Vom Saal FS; Welshons WV (2003). “Bisphenol A is launched from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature”. Environmental Well being Views. 111 (9): 1180–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.5993. PMC 1241572. PMID 12842771.
  29. ^ vom Saal FS, Hughes C (2005). “An intensive new literature regarding low-dose results of bisphenol A exhibits the necessity for a brand new danger evaluation”. Environ. Well being Perspect. 113 (8): 926–33. doi:10.1289/ehp.7713. PMC 1280330. PMID 16079060.
  30. ^ Hunt, PA; Kara E. Koehler; Martha Susiarjo; Craig A. Hodges; Arlene Ilagan; Robert C. Voigt; Sally Thomas; Brian F. Thomas; Terry J. Hassold (2003). “Bisphenol A Publicity Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy within the Feminine Mouse”. Present Biology. 13 (7): 546–553. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00189-1. PMID 12676084. S2CID 10168552.
  31. ^ Koehler, KE; Robert C. Voigt; Sally Thomas; Bruce Lamb; Cheryl City; Terry Hassold; Patricia A. Hunt (2003). “When catastrophe strikes: rethinking caging supplies”. Lab Animal. 32 (4): 24–27. doi:10.1038/laban0403-24. PMID 19753748. S2CID 37343342. Archived from the unique on 2009-07-06. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
  32. ^ “Cloudtops – Greenhouses, Sunrooms, Misting, Fogging, Shade – Macrolux Polycarbonate”. cloudtops.com. Archived from the unique on 2010-07-27. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
  33. ^ Bair, H. E.; Falcone, D. R.; Hellman, M. Y.; Johnson, G. E.; Kelleher, P. G. (1981-06-01). “Hydrolysis of polycarbonate to yield BPA”. Journal of Utilized Polymer Science. 26 (6): 1777. doi:10.1002/app.1981.070260603.
  34. ^ a b c Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Hale, Sarah E. (2015). “Bisphenol A in Strong Waste Supplies, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Dealing with Services: Presence and Partitioning Conduct”. Environmental Science & Expertise. 49 (13): 7675–7683. Bibcode:2015EnST…49.7675M. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01307. PMID 26055751.
  35. ^ Chin, Yu-Ping; Miller, Penney L.; Zeng, Lingke; Cawley, Kaelin; Weavers, Linda Okay. (2004). “Photosensitized Degradation of Bisphenol A by Dissolved Natural Matter †”. Environmental Science & Expertise. 38 (22): 5888–5894. Bibcode:2004EnST…38.5888C. doi:10.1021/es0496569. PMID 15573586.
  36. ^ a b T., Chow, Jimmy (2007-08-06). “Environmental evaluation for bisphenol-a and polycarbonate”. hdl:2097/368.
  37. ^ Carroccio, Sabrina; Puglisi, Concetto; Montaudo, Giorgio (2002). “Mechanisms of Thermal Oxidation of Poly(bisphenol A carbonate)”. Macromolecules. 35 (11): 4297–4305. Bibcode:2002MaMol..35.4297C. doi:10.1021/ma012077t.
  38. ^ a b Collin, S.; Bussière, P. -O.; Thérias, S.; Lambert, J. -M.; Perdereau, J.; Gardette, J. -L. (2012-11-01). “Physicochemical and mechanical impacts of photo-ageing on bisphenol a polycarbonate”. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 97 (11): 2284–2293. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2012.07.036.
  39. ^ Tjandraatmadja, G. F.; Burn, L. S.; Jollands, M. J. (1999). “The consequences of ultraviolet radiation on polycarbonate glazing” (PDF).
  40. ^ Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, V. (2014). “Recycling Finish-of-Life Polycarbonate in Steelmaking: Ab Initio Research of Carbon Dissolution in Molten Iron”. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53 (10): 3861–3864. doi:10.1021/ie4031105.
  41. ^ “Air pollution Database”. air pollution.unibuc.ro. Archived from the unique on 2017-12-29. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  42. ^ “Pollutant Reality Sheet”. apps.sepa.org.uk. Archived from the unique on 2017-01-09. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  43. ^ Bosch, Xavier (2001-06-27). “Fungus eats CD”. Nature Information. doi:10.1038/information010628-11.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *